February 27, 2015
The 2015 Index of Women’s Advancement marks the 9th series of MasterCard’s effort in tracking the progress of women towards gender parity based on Employment (Workforce Participation and Regular Employment), Capability (Secondary and Tertiary Education), and Leadership (Business Owners, Business Leaders and Political Leaders). The results reveal that the progress made by women towards gender parity in the majority of the 16 markets1 in Asia Pacific is sluggish with the large gaps in Leadership and to a lesser extent, Employment, remaining prevalent and an ongoing area of concern.
Although opportunities exist for women to pursue higher levels of education (reflected through the high scores for Capability), labor market conditions are not always conducive for them in seeking employment. Very few women are making inroads into the business/corporate world, a situation that was highlighted in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 Women’s Report2 whereby factors such as poor self-assessment of capabilities and fear of failures have been cited to be the key deterrents of women progressing in the business and political world. In Japan, despite good progress being achieved by women in terms of attainment of education, the further pursuit of career and participation in business, leadership and politics is often foregone due to the deep-rooted tradition and cultural expectation for married women to stay at home as the primary caretakers and household decision makers. In South Asia, women in Nepal outshone their regional peers in political representation, with the score for Leadership surging from 5.5 (zero female politicians in 2014) to 41.2 in 2015 (4.3 female politicians out of every 10 male politicians).
Drawing on the results of MasterCard’s latest Women’s Well Being Index Survey for 2014H23, we note that despite the slow progress made by women, the perception of their overall wellbeing in life remains optimistic. This is especially evident in India where women’s regard for personal wellness increased from 69.6 in 2014H1 to 73.3, placing them in 2nd place among the 16 Asia Pacific markets surveyed. This could be attributed to their particularly high resilience in life from threats such as violent and financial crime, natural disasters and pollution, as well as their ability to cope with stress both at home and at the workplace.
Solid traction towards gender parity in Capability in New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines & Vietnam; Progress in Leadership lacking in most markets
Women in New Zealand, Australia and the Philippines continue to outshine their regional peers with New Zealand scoring highest at 77.3 (2014: 78.2), followed by Australia at 76.0 (2014: 76.4) and the Philippines at 72.6 (2014: 72.3). The biggest declines in overall score are observed in Thailand (59.4 points, down 7.2) while the largest improvement is achieved in Singapore (up 0.4 points to 70.5). The results indicate that with the exception of 6 markets (Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines), the scores for the remaining markets declined or remained unchanged (Japan and Vietnam).
As an indicator of Female to Male Secondary and Tertiary School Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) ratio, the Capability sub-index reflects the degree of women’s access to education and acquisition of knowledge assets as compared to their male counterparts. Of the three sub-indexes, Capability remains the strongest indicator of Asia Pacific women’s advancement towards gender parity for the 9th consecutive year. With the exception of Korea (85.9 points), the Capability index scores for all Asia Pacific countries are above 90.0.
In New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines, gender parity scores of 100.0 in Capability have been achieved and maintained consistently for 9 consecutive years; suggesting women in these countries are a on par with their male counterparts in terms of basic and advanced knowledge assets. Strength in Capability is also evident in emerging Vietnam (score of 100.0 achieved for the 6th years since 2010). The index scores for Capability remain high in Malaysia and China with both markets scoring above 98.0 points. Marginal declines were observed in Indonesia (91.1, down 0.3 points), Taiwan (97.6, down 0.6 points) and China (98.4, down 0.5 points).
The steady progress achieved by women in the acquisition of knowledge assets through the pursuit of secondary and tertiary-level education is reflected in the increasing proportion of female-to-male education enrolment rate. The results show that out of the 16 Asia Pacific markets, the number of women in 10 markets outnumbers that of men in terms of tertiary gross enrolment rate. This is most prominent in New Zealand where the female-to-male tertiary GER ratio is the highest at 146.3 in 2015 (2007: 144.8), followed by Australia at 135.3 (2007: 129.1), the Philippines at 130.8 (2007: 124.5) and Malaysia at 128.7 (2007: 120.5). In fact, in the Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand and Vietnam, women outnumber men in GER for both secondary and tertiary education. This suggests that across the region, women are becoming increasingly more educated than their male counterparts, a progress that was echoed during the recent World Entrepreneurship Forum where it was noted that women entrepreneurs have progressed to become ‘more educated’ than men5, although the opportunities for women to attain their full potential is still lacking in terms of having the chance to utilize their knowledge assets to advance further in life through the pursuit of career or participation in business ventures.
As an indicator of Workforce Participation and Regular Employment, the Employment sub-index measures the female to male ratio of participation in economic activity and access to regular employment. The results show Employment remaining as the second strongest sub-index over the 9-year period from 2007 to 2015 with 4 markets scoring higher than 90.0 points: New Zealand (91.3), China (91.2), Australia (90.8) and Taiwan (90.2). With the exception of Indonesia (78.4), the Philippines (76.5) and Malaysia (75.9), women across most of Asia Pacific are making some progress towards being as economically active as their male counterparts, scoring above the 80-point mark. Specifically, Taiwanese women advanced the most from the previous year, gaining 0.4 points to 90.2, surpassing the 90-point mark for the first time since 2007.
Women in New Zealand: Economically Active but Poor Work Life Balance
With an Employment gender parity score of 91.3, women in New Zealand are the most active in terms of workforce participation and regular employment. However, MasterCard’s latest Well Being Index Results (2014H2) suggest that despite making progress in employment, women in New Zealand are generally pessimistic over their ‘Present Life Situation’ (56.8 points) due to various work-related factors such as poor ‘Work-life Balance’ (61.3) and poor outlook of employment (50.0) and income prospects (67.4) in the next 6 months. The survey also highlights women facing high levels of stress both at work (55.2) and in the family (45.3), leading to a low “Personal Well Being” index score of 54.8 points.
Leadership continues to be the weakest link in women’s advancement
As a measurement of the female-to-male ratio in business ownership, business leadership and political participation, the Leadership sub-index reflects women’s progress in the business, economic and political sectors as compared to their male counterparts. Of the 3 main sub-indexes, Leadership remained the weakest from the previous year (and also over the 9-year period) with New Zealand (50.6) and the Philippines (50.1) being the only two countries having more than 50 women business/government leaders for every 100 male business/government leaders. The latest results also indicate that the ratio of female-to-male Thai business/government leaders has declined markedly from 33.5 to 23.7, while that in Singapore picked up slightly from 40.9 to 41.5.
Filipino women: Advancement in Leadership & Sense of Empowerment
Philippines, Singapore and Indonesia show the most marked advancement in women’s leadership since 2007, gaining 12.2, 8.7 and 7.5 index points, respectively. Specifically, the results show that Filipino women have exceled the most in politics with the number of female-to-male politician ratio doubling from 18.2 in 2007 to 37.3 in 2015.
This advancement made by Filipino women in business and political leadership is mirrored in MasterCard’s latest Women’s Well Being Index results (2014H2) whereby the score for the “Voice” component is among the highest in Asia Pacific – voice being an indication of how much women perceive their opinion are valued at home, at work and among their social network and how empowered they feel in general. In fact, the survey shows the overall Well Being Index score for women in the Philippines to have improved markedly from 57.3 points in 2014H1 to 68.6 in 2014H2. This has been buttressed by an increase in the assessment of their life situation in the next 5 years (76.6 points compared to 73.3 in the previous 2014H1 survey).
Singaporean women advancing in Business Ownership
Singaporean women have also made commendable progress in Business ownership over the last 9 years, with the proportion of female-to-male business owners increasing from 29.9 in 2007 to 42.1.
In Thailand, a significant drop in the proportion of female-to-male political leaders is observed with the score dropping from 18.6 in 2014 to only 6.5 in 2015. In contrast, the ratio of Thai women-to-men business leaders has increased from 42.3 in 2007 to 62.7 in 2015.
For most of the markets across the region, the score in Leadership remain largely unchanged: Hong Kong (29.7), Japan (14.7), Korea (19.2), Taiwan (28.4, down 0.3), Malaysia (20.5, up 0.2), China (28.7, down 0.1) and Vietnam (35.2).
With an overall index score of 48.8, Japan is the lowest ranked market in Asia Pacific in terms of women’s advancement towards gender parity, lagging behind their regional peers across all 3 sub-indexes: Employment score of 83.3 compared to regional average of 84.9, Capability score of 94.8 versus regional average of 96.9, and Leadership score of 14.7 versus regional average of 32.2. In terms of participation as business owners, business leaders or political leaders, Japanese women advanced the least in the region with the score of 14.7 (the lowest), picking up only 0.7 points over the 9-year period since 2007.
There are various factors that have contributed to the lower than regional average Employment score of 83.3 for Japan. Despite Japanese women being fairly highly educated (capability score of 94.8), entrenched cultural bias has inculcated a deep-rooted expectation that after marriage and birth of their children, Japanese women usually give up their career and remain in the house as the primary caretakers of the family and household. This is compounded by working conditions that are not always suited or appealing to women (married or single), especially in traditional Japanese companies where working hours are long, often stretching past midnight followed by sessions of “nominication” – a play on the Japanese word for drinking “nomu” and the English word “communication” where business connections and reputations are built. According to data from the OECD (2012), Japanese women’s participation in the labor force is around 63%, far lower than in other developed countries. Furthermore, once women have their first child, nearly 70% of them stop working for a decade or more, compared with just 30% in America6.
The dire lack of progress and need to help bolster Japanese women’s progress in society is acknowledged and supported by Prime Minister Abe who committed USD3 billion (over 3 years) to women’s empowerment initiatives at the United Nations General Assembly in September 2014. Speaking at the recent World Assembly for Women (WAW) symposium7 held in Tokyo in September 2014, Prime Minister Abe highlighted some of the Japan’s key areas of focus related to women, including:
- working together with private industries to increase women’s participation in society;
- fostering environments that make it amicable to balance child care and nursing care with work so that women are able to participate in the workforce more actively; and
- eliminating biases about women’s role that still exist in society by cultivating an environment that encourages and mobilizes women to be more economically- and business-driven.
However, it is likely that many hurdles – corporate, social and political in nature - will hinder Japanese women’s stride towards achieving gender parity and social advancement. Although acknowledged and included in government policies as part of the country’s socioeconomic reform, numerous challenges prevail, such as: (i) resistance by corporate firms to extend maternity leave from 18 months to 3 years; (ii) preference for Japanese firm to hire males for management roles and females for clerical-type work; (iii) stalemate in meeting the 30% women in leadership roles by 2020 - a target that was first proposed in 2003 by then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi; and (iv) and the lack of trust of daycare centers and preference for foreign nannies which is making it difficult for working mothers to pursue their careers8.
Results from a 2011 regional study conducted by McKinsey highlight that just 4.5% of corporate division heads were female (up from 1.2% in 1989), and of the most senior, executive-committee-level managers in Japan, only 1.0% were women. This is in stark contrast to much more progressive figures attained in China (9.0%) and Singapore (15.0%)9. The study also highlighted that few Japanese women hold professional, technical or managerial roles with the majority (77%) of them making up part-time and temporary work positions.
MasterCard Women’s Well Being Index Suggests Poor Regard for Personal Well Being Among Japanese Women
The lackluster progress towards gender parity by Japanese women is mirrored in the results from MasterCard’s latest Women’s Well Being Index Survey (2014H2) which shows a very poor regard for wellbeing among Japanese women. In particular, we observe a marked deterioration in their outlook for future prospects in Regular Income (down 16.2 points to 32.6) and Employment (down 8.4 points to 42.9). The survey also show Japanese women regarding their ‘Safety from Threats’ to be very poor (decline in score from 47.3 to 45.2 points). Similarly, Japanese women’s perception of their ‘Personal Well Being’ and ‘Satisfaction over life’ is substandard (51.8 and 51.1, respectively).
Score for Leadership Declined
With an index score of 59.4, Thailand is ranked 9th overall in the region with scores for Employment (88.1) and Capability (100) remaining unchanged from the previous survey, while that for Leadership having declined by 9.8 points to 23.7. Specifically, there was a marked decline in the female-to-male ratio of political leaders from 18.6 in 2014 to 6.5. This may be due to the May 2014 ousting of the former female Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra which led to the subsequent decline in the number of female political officials holding political positions. Prior to her removal from political power, there was a substantial increase in female representation in Thai politics from 2008 to 2011 with Thai women making up 15% of Members of Parliament (MPs), 16% of senators and 17% of senior civil service positions in 2011 compared to only 9.4% of elected officials in 2008. It has been noted that the root of the problem of the country’s low women representation in politics resides in the recruitment process whereby women are actually prevented to put their names on the ballots. In the few cases where they are actually elected, they are usually related to a network of male politicians (e.g. Yingluck, sister of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra)10.
Perception of Overall Wellbeing in Life Strengthened
Despite a low advancement score of 59.4 points, Thai women are feeling positive in terms of their overall wellbeing in life. This is reflected in MasterCard’s Women’s Well Being Women’s Survey results which suggest Thai women’s perception of their wellbeing has improved markedly from 59.8 points in 2014H1 to 69.6 points in 2014H2. In fact, the results indicate an increase in scores for all 5 components measured: ‘Work & Finances’ (up 2.3 points to 74.2), ‘Safety from Threats’ (up 1.9 points to 62.3), ‘Satisfaction in Life’ (2.6 points to 72.9), ‘Personal Well Being’ (up 2.1 points to 68.0) and ‘Voice’ (up 0.7 points to 70.5). The Well Being Survey also shows that Thai women who are employed are generally optimistic about their ‘Regular Income’ (84.2) and ‘Employment’ (81.5) prospects over the next 6 months.
Solid traction towards gender parity in Capability in New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines & Vietnam;
Optimism in Well Being observed in India, Indonesia, Philippines & Vietnam
In summary, the progress towards gender parity among women in Asia Pacific is sluggish, especially in the areas of business leadership, business ownership and political participation. Although women are generally well-educated (and in some markets such as the Philippines, Thailand and New Zealand better educated than males), when it comes to choosing between pursuing a career or remaining in the household as primary caretakers, women tend to opt for the latter due to overpowering factors such as deep-rooted traditions and culture beliefs and less-than-conducive corporate work conditions such as excessively long working hours. This is especially prominent in Thailand and Japan.
Notwithstanding the slow progress achieved by Asia Pacific women towards gender parity, women in markets such as Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand are showing greater optimism on their overall wellbeing in life with Indonesia advancing the most (Well Being Index score gaining 20 points from 2014H1 to 74.3 in 2014H2), positioning them as the most satisfied (Rank 1) among their regional peers. Thai women also appear to be much more positive about their wellbeing in life with their Well Being Index score gaining 9.8 points from the previous survey to 69.6 points.
Women in all 5 South Asian markets continue to advance, with the overall index scores improving from 2013. The largest increase in advancement score is observed in Nepal (up 35.7 points to 71.8) due to the representation of women in politics (there were no female politicians in Nepal in the previous year). In fact, of the 5 markets in South Asia, Nepalese women made the most progress towards gender parity in terms of political participation. In contrast, women in Pakistan advanced the least in business and politics (Leadership score of only 3.5) and in labor force participation (Employment score of 41.4, the lowest in the region), placing them in the lowest rank in South Asia.
South Asian women’s progress towards gender parity in terms of labor force participation and regular employment remains sluggish. With a score of 96.0 (unchanged from the previous year), Nepal has the highest Employment score in the region, followed by Bangladesh (83.3, up 0.3 points), India (59.8, unchanged), Sri Lanka (46.2, up 0.1 points) and Pakistan (41.4, up 0.4 points and lowest in South Asia).
It is encouraging to note that Nepalese women are achieving greater success towards attaining gender parity in ‘Regular Employment’: for every 100 men, there are 100.1 women having regular employment. In terms of ‘Workforce Participation’, the score is also high: 92.2 women for every 100 men.
In Pakistan, the women’s participation in the workforce remains discouragingly low at 41.4. The results indicate that for every 100 men, just over one-quarter (28.6) of their female counterparts are working.
Nepalese women becoming more educated & are increasingly entering the workforce
Within South Asia, the sub-index of Capability continues to be the strongest among the 3 components measured. Specifically, women in Sri Lanka outshine their regional peers in terms of gender parity towards the acquisition of basic and advanced knowledge assets relative to men – this is reflected through the score of 100.0 for the 7th consecutive year. Similarly, Nepalese women show impressive strides in enrolment for secondary and tertiary education with the Capability score rising from 90.0 the previous year to 93.5 (up 47% since 2007). This is consistent with their high score of 96.0 in Employment, suggesting that Nepalese women have more opportunities to utilize their knowledge assets to contribute towards the economy and society.
The latest women’s advancement index for Leadership shows that with the exception of Nepal, most of the women in South Asia are making slow progress in business and political representation. In Nepal, we observe a significant jump in Leadership score from 5.5 the previous year to a much more encouraging score of 41.2 – this is due to the increase in female-to-male ratio of political leaders (there were no female politicians in Nepal in 2014). In terms of business ownership, Nepalese women have the highest representation in the region (72.4 women out of every 100 men) compared to their regional peers (Sri Lanka at 13.4, India at 13.2, Bangladesh at 11.7 and Pakistan at 0.5).
In India, we observe slight progress made in Business Leadership (up from 26.3 female per 100 male business leaders to 27.6 in 2015) and Political Leadership (up from 12.2 females per 100 male politicians to 13.1 in 2015).
Indian women optimistic over wellbeing
Despite the lack of progress made in workforce participation (59.8, no change) and the attainment of basic and advanced knowledge assets (85.7, no change), Indian women are still positive over their wellbeing in life. As shown in the MasterCard Women’s Well Being Index (2014H2), Indian women’s regard for their wellbeing in life increased from 69.6 in 2014H1 to 73.3, placing them 2nd in ranking among the 16 markets surveyed and trailing only Indonesia at 74.3. This had been underpinned by gains across all 5 major components measured: Work & Finances (up 4.5 points to 72.2), ‘Safety from Threats’ (up 5.3 points to 72.8), ‘Satisfaction’ (up 3.6 points to 74.1), ‘Personal Well Being’ (up 3.1 to 73.7) and ‘Voice’ (up 2.0 points to 73.6). The results show that apart from the challenges in saving for big item purchases (41.4), Indian women are optimistic about their welfare at home, as well as the society and the economy. This is reflected through their high scores for income (91.2) and employment (94.1) prospects, satisfaction with present and future life situation (75.2 and 75.4, respectively) and Work-Life balance (73.9). Indian womens’ ability to deal with stress levels is also commendable: family stress (71.2), work stress (77), health (72.1) and financial stress (74.4).
They are also particularly more resilient as compared to their regional peers in terms of their perception of ‘Safety from threats’. This is demonstrated by their high scores for Violent Crime (74.7), Financial Crime (73.1), Cyber Crime (70.7), Disease Outbreak (71.9) and Natural Disaster/Pollution (73.5).
In contrast, Pakistani women’s participation in both business and politics is significantly lower. This is especially evident in business ownership and leadership: for every 100 male business owners, there are only 0.5 female business owners and 3.5 female business leaders. When it comes to political representation, the results are slightly more encouraging (24.5) with approximately one female politician for every four men. This is unsurprising, given that Pakistani women’s participation in the workforce is also very low (score of 41.4). This apparent lack of progress in Leadership and Employment is immensely discouraging given that the women in the country have become more educated compared to their male counterparts - since 2009, the number of women who have attained tertiary education have steadily risen from 84.2 to 117.0 in 2015. This gender gap suggests persistent cultural bias towards women.
Highly Literate but hindered by family obligations: A cause of economic inactiveness among Nepalese women
The case of women’s progress towards gender equality in Nepal is interesting. Of the 5 South Asian markets, Nepal’s score for Women’s Advancement is the highest at 71.8 points. This effectively places it ahead of most developed countries in Asia Pacific: Hong Kong (63.2), Singapore (70.5), Japan (48.8), South Korea (51.6) and Taiwan (63.0). Specifically, we observe the scores for ‘Employment’ (96.0) and ‘Capability’ (93.5) for Nepalese women to be the highest compared to their South Asian peers.
There are several factors inhibiting their progress towards to achieving full potential in society. First, family obligations appear to be a major hindrance to Nepalese women’s progress towards achieving gender equality in terms of economic participation. According to data from the country’s Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 83% of Nepalese who have chosen not to work or are making minimal contributions to the labor market are ‘literate’. . The CBS report also highlights that at least 33.3% of those who belong in the economically inactive or partially active population cited ‘household duties’ as the key reason for not being able to join the labor force. Of this cohort, a significant 95% are females who obligated to look after children and attend to household chores. Nepal is predominantly a male dominated society, many females are not granted equal opportunities12.
Apart from this, the second reason why Nepalese women do not have equal representation in Employment and Capability stems from the large income gap that exists in the country. A recent World Economic Forum (WEF) report shows that while the number of men and women working in the country is nearly at par, female workers are only commanding around 60% of the wage that their male counterparts are receiving13. According to date from the Global Gender Gap Report 2014, Nepal is ranked 16th best in the world with a female-to-male labor force ratio of 0.93 (93 out of every 100 working men), surpassing countries like the Philippines and Thailand. However, in terms of income prowess between working men and women, Nepal is ranked significantly lower at 93rd position with men earning an average annual income of USD2,873 based on purchasing power parity (PPP) compared to USD1,503 for women, effectively placing the female-to-male wage equality ratio at 0.62.
In general, we observe progress towards gender parity among South Asian women to be largely sluggish. With the exception of Nepal, women are mostly economically inactive and lack political empowerment. This is reflected in the low ‘Employment’ scores in India (59.8), Sri Lanka (46.2) and Pakistan (41.4) and extremely low ‘Leadership’ scores of 3.5 in Pakistan, 12.1 in Bangladesh, 16.8 in India and 14.5 in Sri Lanka. Within the region, Nepal remains the strongest market with an overall index score of 71.8, an achievement that is mostly attributed to their much stronger leadership participation score of 41.2 as compared to their South Asian peers.
In India, it is observed that notwithstanding the lack of progress made by women in Employment and Capability, Indian women are still optimistic over their wellbeing in life. We noted that this may be attributed to their higher resilience with regards to threats (the score for Safety from threats is high at 72.8), satisfaction with present and future life situation, and ability to deal with stress at home and at work.
The results from the 2015 MasterCard Index of Women’s Advancement (MIWA) underscore the incremental steps made by women towards gender parity in Capability (knowledge assets). Efforts made by women in South Asia are especially commendable, as is reflected in the increase in Capability scores in Bangladesh (up 1.1 point to 87.6), Nepal (up 3.5 points to 93.5) and Pakistan (up 1.2 points to 89.2). In Asia Pacific, women’s solid traction towards gender parity in basic and advanced knowledge is promising in the markets of Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand and Vietnam where Capability scores of 100 have been achieved consecutively since 2007 (2009 for Vietnam).
We highlighted the key challenges women face in societies that are male-dominated, such as employment discrimination, income gender gap and a deeply entrenched cultural bias against women working, which may have overtime inculcated a certain degree of complacency or lack of ambition in women – a factor that may explain the discrepancy between the relatively high scores for Capability (education) and Employment (workforce participation). This is observed in both emerging markets such as Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and in developed markets such as Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, New Zealand and Australia where the scores for Capability supersedes that of Employment.
Progress towards gender equality in Business and Political Leadership continues to be the stalemate faced by the majority of women in Asia Pacific and South Asia. With the exception of Australia (49.7), Singapore (41.5), Philippines (50.1), New Zealand (50.6) and Nepal (41.2), the Leadership scores for the remaining markets remain discouragingly low. Over the course of 2014, we observed how the removal of Prime Minister Yingluck from office has imparted an adverse effect on Thai women’s progress in business and political leadership (Leadership score declined markedly from 33.5 to 23.7).
Drawing on results from MasterCard’s latest 2014H2 Women’s Well Being Index which provided a snapshot of women’s attitudes and perception of their wellness in life, we observed that despite the slow incremental steps made by women towards gender parity, their overall regard for wellbeing in life remains intact. This is especially pronounced in markets such as India where women display significantly higher resilience in life, such as their perception of safety from threats, personal wellbeing, satisfaction in life, and ability to deal with financial stress and stress at home and at home. We also noted the opposite to be true: in markets such as Japan and South Korea where women’s progress towards gender parity is especially laggard (such as in leadership), their perception of wellbeing in life is also poor.
 Markets in the Middle East & African region are no longer covered in this survey
 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Women’s Report
 MasterCard Well Being Index 2014H2 is based on a bi-annual survey conducted between Oct & Nov ’14 on 8,235 respondents aged 18-64 across 16 markets in Asia/Pacific. It is designed to provide a deeper insight to respondents’ attitudes and social advancement across 5 categories: “Work and Finances”, “Safety from Threats”, “Personal and Work Satisfaction”, “Personal Well Being” and “Sense of Empowerment”.
 The Asia/Pacific region includes Australia, New Zealand, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and Vietnam.
 World Entrepreneurship Forum 2013, Melinda Emerson, http://womenentrepreneursgrowglobal.org/tag/global-entrepreneurship-monitor/
 “Holding back half the nation”, The Economist, 29 March 2014
 World Assembly for Women (WAW) Tokyo September 2014, Nikkei Asian Review
 Georges Desvaux, head of McKinsey’s Tokyo office quoted in “Holding back half the nation”, The Economist, 29 March 2014
 Quoted in “Holding back half the nation”, The Economist, 29 March 2014
 “Gender and Politics: Can Thai women break down political barriers?”, 11 Nov 2014, Available Online.
 The 5 markets in South Asia are Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
 ‘83% of economically inactive people literate’, International Employment Today, 15 Jan 2015, [Available Online]
 ‘Workforce of men‚ women same but wages different’, World Economic Forum Report, Quoted in International Employment Today, 28 Oct 2014, [Available Online] http://employment.einnews.com/article/231628081/CCigi8qYSXGBIOmG
TagsAsia Pacific, Women, women advancement
2. ASIA PACIFIC4
2.1 Insight to Women's Advancement in Japan
2.2 Insight to Women's Advancement in Thailand
2.3. Summary of Results: Asia Pacific
3. SOUTH ASIA11
3.1 Insight to Women's Advancement in Nepal
3.2 Summary of Results: South Asia