http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/topnav/topics/travel2019-01-18T22:52:52.781ZTravelAdobe Experience ManagerThe Future of Outbound Travel in Asia/Pacific Desmond Choong, Dr Yuwa Hedrick-WongIntroduction<p>Outbound travel has been growing strongly in recentyears.<sup><a href="#ft1">1</a></sup> Asia/Pacific, which has been traditionally a region known for its attractive destinations for international visitors, is also fast becoming a leading source of outbound travel. This report presents the Asia/Pacific regional outlook of outbound travel to 2020. Fourteen markets in Asia/Pacific are covered in the report, an even split between developing markets and developed economies. The emerging markets are China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The developed economies are Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.</p> <p>Combining real GDP growth projections, household distribution by income brackets, and survey data on “propensity for outbound travel” by household incomes; a proprietary model has been constructed to project outbound travel trips per household by income brackets in each of the fourteen markets to 2020<sup><a href="#ft2">2</a></sup>.</p> <p>These projections in turn made possible estimations of household income threshold above which outbound travel begins to take off. In addition, the top aspirational destinations for outbound travelers from these markets are also identified. Together, they form a regional picture of how much outbound travel originating from Asia/Pacific will grow, distribution of outbound travelers by household incomes, and where they aspire to visit, both within the region as well as outside of the region.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table1.jpg"><img width="554" height="208" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table1.jpg"></a></p> <p><i>Note: Due to rounding, numbers presented throughout this document may not add precisely to the totals provided and percentages may not precisely reflect the absolute figures.</i></p> Regional Overview<p>Collectively, the 14 Asia/Pacific markets are expected to grow by an annual growth rate of 7.9% over the forecast period of 2014-2020. The largest outbound markets in 2020 will be China, followed by South Korea and Japan. Even if one excludes all trips to Hong Kong and Macau (which are technically domestic trips as they are both parts of China), Mainland China outbound remains the largest in Asia/Pacific in 2020, more than four times of that of South Korea which is the second largest market.</p> <p>Currently Japan outbound is the second largest in the region but South Korea is projected to overtake it sometime in 2019. Similarly, if the forecasted growth rates persist past 2020, then India will in turn overtake South Korea to be the second largest outbound market by 2022.</p> <p>Emerging Asia/Pacific currently has about one and a half times more outbound trips than developed Asia/Pacific (mostly due to China). And it will also grow by more than twice as fast as developed Asia (10.1% versus 3.9%) over the forecast period. Table 1 summarizes the actual growth rates from 2010 to 2013, and the growth projections to 2020 for the 14 Asia/Pacific markets.</p> <p>Chart 1 locates the positions of each of the 14 Asia/Pacific markets in the two-dimensional space combining real GDP growth rates (the vertical axis) and the growth rates of outbound travel (the horizontal axis). India is the fastest growing outbound market at 13% over the forecast period, followed by China at 11.1% excluding trips to Hong Kong and Macau, (but China would have a faster growth rate than India at 13.3% if trips to Hong Kong and Macau are excluded). In the third place is Philippines at 8.7% and in fourth place Indonesia at 7.6%. The fastest growing developed markets are Singapore (5.3%), Taiwan (5.1%) and Hong Kong (4.9%). It is interesting to note that these three markets are also the smallest in geographic size among the 14 markets covered, suggesting that limited competition from domestic tourism destinations adds to the overall size of international outbound demand.</p> <p>Chart 1 also shows that outbound travel is generally growing faster than real GDP except in the case of Japan and South Korea where outbound travel is growing at almost the same pace as real GDP. A quick glance at Chart 1 also reveals that in general the difference between outbound travel growth and real GDP growth tends to be higher (below the diagonal line) for developing markets (except for Malaysia) and tends to be lower (hugging or close to the diagonal line) for developed markets.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart1.jpg"><img width="482" height="397" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart1.jpg"></a></p> <p>In addition to estimating the overall growth rates of outbound travel trips, it is also important to understand the growth of outbound travel in relation to the dynamics of changing numbers of households as well as household incomes in these markets. Table 2 summarizes the changing ratios of outbound trips to numbers of households in recent years. Apart from Japan, all the developed markets have a ratio of 100% or above in 2020. While a ratio of 100% means on average that each household has one person who makes a trip abroad each year, in practice it is more likely that a certain percentage of households make multiple trips overseas each year, and the remaining households do not go abroad at all. The ratios for Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan are much larger than 100% and not coincidentally are also the fastest growing developed markets for outbound trips.</p> <p>Among the emerging markets, India’s ratio of 3% of outbound leisure trips to total households in 2014 is startlingly low, even with a forecasted improvement of almost double to 5.8% in 2020. The ratio is the lowest in Asia/Pacific and about three times smaller than the next lowest (Indonesia at 10.7% in 2014 improving to 15.6% in 2020). If India had exactly the same ratio as Indonesia, then Indian outbound leisure travel would be 28.2 million trips in 2014 (instead of 7.9 million trips) and 44.4 million trips in 2020 (instead of 16.5 million trips). It suggests the enormous potential for Indian outbound leisure travel over the next 10-20 years as the ratio starts to approach those of the other developing markets.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table2.jpg"><img width="489" height="410" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table2.jpg"></a></p> <p>Japan is an anomaly among the developed markets with an outbound trip to household ratio of only 37.7% in 2020. Japan’s ratio has never breached 40% from the statistics we have seen since 1970 which is only six years after outbound travel in Japan was deregulated in 1964. In comparison, the ratio for South Korea is estimated at almost 100% in 2020. Some reasons given by the Japan Tourism Marketing Co. for lacklustre Japanese outbound travel is that the structural change in Japanese society owing to a declining population, a stagnant economy, natural disasters within Japan, and a series of negative external events since 2001 (SARs, Indian Ocean Tsunami, Twin towers bombing, Global Financial Crisis) has sapped the motivation for outbound travel. Japanese consumer confidence levels since the 1990s seems to concur with this view as shown in Chart 2: Japanese consumer confidence has been consistently pessimistic and below the other Asia/Pacific developed market average except for the period between 2005 and 2007, and more recently in the first half of 2013.</p> <p>Another supporting statistic of this trend is that the number of valid Japanese passports issued has been declining since 2005 from about 35 million to about 31 million in 2010. Finally, it is worthwhile noting that Japan has an excellent domestic tourism product (ranked 14th in the world by the World Economic Forum) which competes with outbound international travel (domestic tourism in Japan accounting for 90 to 95% of total travel).</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart2.jpg"><img width="499" height="435" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart2.jpg"></a></p> <p>Table 3 shows how outbound trips are dispersed across households by using a concentration ratio which is simply the percentage of outbound trips taken by a specific household income range divided by the percentage of total households in that income range. For example, if 10% of all outbound trips are accounted for by 10% of households in a particular income range, then the concentration ratio is “1”, suggesting an even distribution of outbound trips among households within the income range. Thus, as seen in Table 3, households with incomes over US$15,000 in Taiwan have a propensity for travel similar to the population at large; whereas Indian households with incomes over US$10,000 have a propensity for outbound travel ten times higher than the population at large.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table3.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="492" height="428" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table3.jpg"></a></p> <p>A concentration ratio of &quot;1&quot; therefore denotes that outbound trips are perfectly distributed across the household income brackets. As the ratio increases, the more concentrated outbound trips are among the higher income households. As illustrated in Chart 3, the developed markets have a ratio between 1.0 (Taiwan) and 1.4 (South Korea) implying that outbound travel is quite evenly spread across the household income brackets. Among emerging markets, however, it ranges from outbound travel being quite evenly spread (Malaysia at 1.4) to being extremely concentrated among the higher income households as in the case of India at 10.8.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart3.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="492" height="445" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart3.jpg"></a></p> <p>The household propensity for outbound international leisure travel can also be analyzed in terms of changing household incomes. As shown in Chart 4, at household income of US$30,000 and above, the average propensity curves for developing and developed markets follow a similar trajectory although the peaks of the curves are different (i.e. higher for developed markets). What is interesting is the shape of the curves below US$30,000. In the range of household income between US$10,000 and US$30,000, the gap in the propensity for outbound travel steadily narrows, suggesting that in this income bracket, households in developing markets are rapidly catching up in their propensity for outbound travel with their counterparts in developed markets. But the gap opens up again beyond the US$30,000 income level. For the developing market households the inflection point is around the US$10,000 mark after which the propensity for international leisure travel rises rapidly till the US$30,000 level. This inflection point suggests that US$10,000 household income is the threshold level of international outbound leisure travel for the developing Asia/Pacific markets.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart4.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="499" height="452" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart4.jpg"></a></p> <p>Over 2012 and 2013, MasterCard surveyed over 22,000 people across 14 markets in Asia/Pacific to gauge their aspirational destinations for their outbound travel around the world. Without being prompted, they were asked which destinations they would visit if cost were not an issue. Table 4 summarizes the results of the top 20 aspirational destinations of the 14 Asia/Pacific markets.</p> <p>The destinations were identified in terms of both cities and countries. For example, some respondents chose London as their top aspirational travel destination, whereas others chose UK. And others even chose Europe as their aspirational destination. So the list is a mix of cities, countries and regions. But these destinations can also be grouped into city-country combinations (e.g. London-UK and Paris-France) to re-calculate their attractiveness to travelers from Asia/Pacific. For developed Asia/Pacific travelers, the Paris (#1) – France (#14) combination, ties with the New York (#2) – USA (#5) combination at 10.1% each of the aspirational mindshare. Together with London (#3) - UK (#9) combination at 8.5%, Tokyo (#7) - Japan (#4) combination at 7.0%, and Rome (#6) - Italy (#16) combination at 4.5%, these top five city-country combinations account for 56.3%of the total mindshare. Asia/Pacific destinations represented in the top 20 make up 14.1% of mindshare which the fourth ranked Tokyo-Japan combination accounts for half at 7.0%. The next highest Asia/Pacific destination is Australia (#8) with less than half (2.4%) of the Tokyo-Japan combination aspirational mindshare. This bodes well for Japan which just hit 10 million foreign arrivals for 2013 (a record) on the back of a weakened yen and relaxing of travel visa restrictions for inbound visitors. The government plans to double the number of visitors to 20 million by 2020 (which coincidentally is also the year that Tokyo hosts the Olympic Games).</p> <p>The developing Asia/Pacific traveler list of top 20 aspirational destinations also features Paris, London and New York in the top ranks but what is interesting is that Asia/Pacific destinations have a much stronger representation with 28.5% of aspirational destinations within the top 20 list. Singapore which did not even appear in the top 20 developed Asia/Pacific list ranks number two in the developing market list. The Tokyo (#5) - Japan (#7) combination is unique in that it ranks very highly in both lists (7.2% in the developing markets top 20 and 7.0% developed markets top 20) with almost the same percentage. One reason for the stronger showing of Asia/Pacific destinations within the developing markets top 20 aspirational list is the relative immaturity of outbound travel in these developing markets. Two cases in point are the top 20 list of Indonesian residents which features Singapore and Kuala Lumpur (both short haul destinations) in the top five, and the top 20 list of Vietnam residents which have Singapore and Bangkok (both also short haul destinations) in the top six. The appearance of highly ranked aspirational yet short haul destinations illustrates the relative immaturity of the Indonesian and Vietnamese outbound travel market, as a mature market would have realized the short haul aspirational destinations earlier in the development cycle (i.e. short haul destinations would not be aspirational in a mature market as they are the first to be realized after which they stop being aspirational).</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table4.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="604" height="186" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table4.jpg"></a></p> <p>The appearance of domestic destinations in the individual top 20 lists of India (Mumbai, Delhi, Goa and Srinagar) and Japan (Okinawa, Kyoto and Hokkaido) may go some length to explain why Japan and India have the lowest propensity to travel internationally among the developed and developing Asia/Pacific markets respectively (none of the other 12 markets feature any domestic locations within their top 20 aspirational list). In fact of the top 50 aspirational destinations for India, 21 of them are domestic and account for 17% of aspirational destination mindshare. It suggests that there is still a pent up demand for domestic travel which competes with international travel for the overall household travel budget. In the case of Japan, it may explain in part why the propensity for international travel has a lower trajectory rate as one moves higher along the income brackets compared to South Korea which has no domestic locations within its list of aspirational destinations. Similarly it may explain why India's propensity for international outbound leisure travel rises much more slowly after the US$10,000 inflection point compared to China (which shares the same inflection point).</p> Market Details<p><b>Philippines</b></p> <p>International outbound leisure travel trips by residents of the Philippines are estimated at 3.8 million in 2014 and are forecasted to grow by an average of 8.7% per year to reach 6.2 million trips by 2020. Total outbound trips will grow about five times faster than total household growth (8.7% versus 1.7%) over the forecast period resulting in a ratio of outbound trips to households that is projected to reach 28.3% in 2020 from 19% in 2014.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table5.jpg"><img width="502" height="190" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Table5.jpg"></a></p> <p>Breaking down outbound trips by household income, households earning above US$10,000 per annum (which make up 34% of all households) will generate about 73% of all outbound international leisure trips in 2014. Projecting forward to 2020, the higher levels of outbound travel growth will come from the households earning above US$10,000 (34% of households are in this category and they account for 73% of all outbound travel). The primary driver for this is that the number of households earning above US$10,000 are also growing much faster than the number of households earning below US$10,000.</p> <p>The propensity to travel by household income exhibits a point of inflection at the US$15,000 household income threshold, where households earning above US$15,000 per year exhibit a propensity for outbound leisure travel that is more than twice that of households earning below US$15,000.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart5.jpg"><img width="498" height="416" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/OutboundTravel/AP_outboundTravel-Chart5.jpg"></a></p> <p>In terms of aspirational destinations, Paris takes top position, followed by the medium and short haul destinations of Singapore and Hong Kong. The percentage of Philippine residents who have selected Hong Kong as an aspirational destination (5.8%) is the highest among the 14 Asia/Pacific economies; similarly the selection of Singapore (6.3%) is the second highest (after Vietnam at 9.9%) among the 14 Asia/Pacific markets.</p> Appendix: Research Methodology and Data Sources<p><b>Forecasting Methodology</b></p> <p>The forecast of outbound travel in Asia/Pacific begins<b> </b>with real GDP growth from 2014 to 2020. The IMF<b> </b>WEO series of GDP forecasts released in October 2013<b> </b>(for the 2014 to 2018 period) is adopted. It is then extended<b> </b>to 2020 extrapolating the growth trends of<b> </b>2014 to 2018.</p> <p>The next step is to apply the &quot;propensity to travel&quot; for each household income brackets obtained from MasterCard surveys from 2012 to 2013 (see data source below). This is then in turn applied to the estimated numbers of households in each income bracket using estimates from Canback-Danglar, thereby generating estimates of average trips per household by their annual incomes.</p> <p>For each household income bracket the total number of outbound trips = average number of trips of the bracket X propensity to travel of the bracket X number of households in the bracket. Initially the distribution of average number of trips per household across the annual household income brackets follows the propensity to travel distribution curve and then was iteratively adjusted until the sum of total outbound trips across all brackets equalizes with the total number of outbound trips at the national level for each year. This process was done for 2011, 2012 and 2013 to obtain the average number of trips per household bracket for the three years. The result is a model that can be applied to estimate the average number of trips per household bracket for the 2014 to 2020 period.<b></b></p> <p><b>Data Source</b></p> <p>The main source of data for this project is the 2012 and 2013 editions of MasterCard Worldwide Survey of Purchasing Priorities. These surveys have been conducted bi-annually since 1993 on 400 to 800 respondents per market aged 18 - 64. Coverage extends to 27 countries across Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa. The survey is extensive and feature sections on consumer confidence, travel, dining, luxury shopping, financial behavior and well-being.</p> <p>To calculate the number of households within the stated income brackets, data from Canback-Danglar was used.</p> <p>Data for outbound travel itself was taken from the national statistics boards of the relevant markets. In general we have tried to eliminate same-day excursionist travel for all markets (e.g. China to Hong Kong) as these numbers can be so large that they are several times the tourist (i.e. overnight) travel size. Furthermore, a sizable portion of these same-day trips are overland for reasons of day to day shopping or for day employment (i.e. cross over for work during the day and cross back home at night). In cases where same day excursionist travel are not available to net out from overall outbound travel we have used proxies like overland or non-air travel (e.g. Singapore-Malaysia both ways and Hong Kong to China) This report is focused on leisure travel and where possible we have tried to use only leisure purpose outbound travel numbers (i.e. extracting business and employment travel where possible). Note that there are some reports that forecast India outbound at 50 million by 2020, but these invariably use all-purpose trips as their forecast base (including trips for employment purposes). This report focuses on leisure travel only where possible. Official surveys on outbound travel for India indicate that close to 60% of all outbound travel is for business or employment purposes and we have adjusted our outbound numbers accordingly.</p> About the Authors<p><b>Desmond Choong</b></p> <p>Desmond Choong is a Research Economist with the MasterCard Center for Inclusive Growth. In this capacity, he sources, reviews and develops research aimed at advancing the Center's goals. Based in Singapore, he is an economist and business analyst with extensive experience in the Asia/Pacific region and a focus on index modeling, market sizing and macroeconomic analysis. He has spent thirteen years consulting for multinational companies across a wide range of industries, including finance, resources, and travel and hospitality. Desmond has taught International Trade at Boston University and holds a B.A. in English/Economics from Boston College and a M.A. in Political Economics from Boston University.<b> <br> </b></p> <p><b>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></p> <p>Yuwa is currently Chief Economist, MasterCard Center for Inclusive Growth, and Global Economic Advisor, MasterCard. He is also HSBC Professor of International Business at the University of British Columbia, Canada.</p> <p>He is an economist with 25 years of experience gained in over thirty countries. He is a Canadian who grew up in Vancouver and has spent the last 20 years working in Europe, Sub-Sahara Africa, and Asia/Pacific. He has served as advisor to over fifty leading multinational companies.</p> <p>He is a published author on consumer markets, economic development, trade and international relations. Yuwa studied philosophy, political science, and economics at Trent University, and pursued post-graduate training at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University in Canada, where he received his Ph.D.</p> <p>He lives on Salt Spring Island, off the west coast of Canada, with his wife and their cat; and is an enthusiastic apprentice in the fine art of gardening.</p> Outbound travel has been growing strongly in recent years. Asia/Pacific, which has been traditionally a region known for its attractive destinations for international visitors, is also fast becoming a leading source of outbound travel. This report presents the Asia/Pacific regional outlook of outbound travel to 2020. Fourteen markets in Asia/Pacific are covered in the report, an even split between developing markets and developed economies. The emerging markets are China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The developed economies are Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2014/the-future-of-outbound-travel-in-asia-pacific2014-02-16T16:00:00.000Z2014-02-16T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Report 2013 Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-WongMasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Report 2013<p>Top 20 Global Destination Cities in 2013<sup>1</sup></p> <p></p> <p>The top destination city by international visitor arrivals in 2013 is Bangkok, which managed to surpass London by a very slim margin. This is the first time an Asian city is in the top rank since the Index was launched in 2010. London is now followed by Paris, Singapore, New York, Istanbul, Dubai and others as shown in Chart 1. Paris remains third, but is the only destination city among the top 20 that shows a decline in the estimated number of international visitor arrivals, by -0.7 percent in 2013. In contrast, Istanbul and Dubai show the strongest growth (along with Bangkok) in increasing their arrival numbers by 9.5 percent and 10.9, percent respectively. With the exception of Bangkok overtaking London to be in the top rank in the world, the lineup of the global top 20 in 2013 is the same as in 2012.</p> <p></p> <p>CHART 1 Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/CHART1GlobalTop20.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/CHART1GlobalTop20.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Global Travel Trending Up Despite Economic Challenges<p>It has been more than four years since the global financial crisis erupted in 2008. The recovery has been slow to say the least, and the global economic outlook continues to be clouded by uncertainty. Against this background, international travel and cross-border spending have shown to be very resilient as evidenced by data from the 132 cities covered by MasterCard’s Global Destination Cities Index.<sup>2</sup> Chart 2 compares the growth between world real GDP, international visitor arrivals in the 132 cities and their cross-border spending over the 2009 and 2013 period. International visitor arrivals grew almost twice as fast as world real GDP, and their cross-border spending grew over 2.3 times faster. So despite the persistent weakness of constrained demand in the global economy, international travel is growing strongly, and the 132 of the world’s most important destination cities are benefiting from this powerful trend.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/CHART2worldgdp.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="471" height="413" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/CHART2worldgdp.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Not all 132 destination cities perform equally well, however. Indeed, a closer look at the change in air travel connectivity of the 132 destination cities over the 2009 and 2013 period shows a decidedly geographic pattern in growth. The level of air travel connectivity for a destination city can be measured in terms of both the scope of the city’s connections with other cities by air travel, as well as the frequency within each connection.<sup>3</sup> Estimates of how air travel connectivity has changed from 2009 to 2013 are summarized in Table 1. Of the 12 destination cities showing the fastest increase in air travel connectivity, all are located east and south of Istanbul with the exception of Moscow. The city with the fastest-growing air travel connectivity in North America is Toronto, which ranks 13. The fastest-growing city in Western Europe in air travel connectivity is Berlin, which ranks 17. The African city with the fastest-growing air connectivity is Cairo, which ranks 19, and in Latin America it is Bogotá, which ranks 22.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/table1airtravelconnectivity.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="447" height="523" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/table1airtravelconnectivity.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This geographical pattern clearly suggests that destination cities in emerging markets in the Middle East and Asia are expanding the fastest in being connected to the rest of the world through having more flights to more cities, and more frequent flights to cities where they are already connected. This will strongly drive the growth of their visitor arrivals and cross-border spending in the coming years.</p> <p></p> <p>Chart 3 shows more detail on the growth rates of the global top five destination cities from 2010 to 2013. Bangkok enjoyed growth rates of over 18 percent in 2011 and 2012, and it follows with a further 9.8 percent growth in 2013, which clearly helped propel it to the world’s number-one rank. In contrast, the growth rates for Singapore dropped significantly over this time period; and, as mentioned above, the growth rate of Paris dips into the negative in 2013.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3globaltop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="480" height="324" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3globaltop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In terms of cross-border spending, New York has retained its top rank in the world in 2013 with an estimated US$18.59 billion, followed by London with US$16.32 billion. They are followed by Paris, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, and others as shown in Chart 4. Though ranked first in the world by arrival numbers, Bangkok is ranked fourth in terms of visitor cross-border spending estimated at US$14.28 billion.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart4globaltop20.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="492" height="523" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart4globaltop20.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The cross-border spending growth rates from 2010 to 2013 of the global top five are illustrated in Chart 5. Bangkok shows highest growth rates overall, rising from close to 20 percent in 2011 to 36 percent in 2012, before settling down to 11.4 percent in 2013. Growth rates in Paris had been very volatile, recovered somewhat in 2013 to -0.7% from a severe decline of -9.2% in 2012. Growth rates in Singapore were in continuous decline in this period, while they were relatively stable for New York and London.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart5globaltop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="455" height="340" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart5globaltop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> Asia/Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities<p>The top 10 in Asia/Pacific are shown in Chart 6. Bangkok, being top ranked in the world, is also the top ranked in Asia. It is followed by Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Tokyo, Taipei, Beijing, and Guangzhou. Significantly, five of the top 10 in 2013 are in the Greater China region.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart67asiapacifictop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="426" height="548" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart67asiapacifictop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 8 lists the top 10 in Asia/Pacific in international visitors’ cross-border spending. Bangkok and Singapore are again in the first and second rank. Tokyo, however, moves up from the seventh rank in arrivals to the third rank in spending, reflecting the higher costs of living in Tokyo. Two Australian cities, Sydney and Melbourne, appear in the top 10 in spending­—ranking fifth and 10th, respectively—­even though they are not in the top 10 in arrivals (Sydney ranks 15th and Melbourne 25th in Asia/Pacific in arrivals). Like Tokyo, this is a reflection of the higher costs of living in these two cities as well as the tendency to stay longer when foreigners visit these two cities. In contrast, three cities have ranks in spending that are lower than their ranks in arrivals, Kuala Lumpur (seventh versus third rank), Shanghai (eighth versus sixth rank), and Hong Kong (ninth versus fourth rank), suggesting that their arrivals either stay for a shorter period or spend less, or both.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart8asiapacifictop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="454" height="245" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart8asiapacifictop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The growth rates of the Asia/Pacific top five destination cities in spending from 2010 to 2013 are detailed in Chart 9. The curves representing Bangkok and Singapore have been shown in Chart 5 in the global top five. Tokyo shows a strong recovery in 2012, bouncing back to 20 percent from a severe contraction of 20 percent in 2011 as a result of the earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disasters. In 2013, its growth is lower than 2012, at around 6.5%. Sydney and Seoul converge similarly to 5.9% and 6.7%, respectively, in 2013.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart9asiapacifictop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="464" height="356" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart9asiapacifictop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> Europe Top 10 Destination Cities<p>London ranks first in Europe in international visitor arrivals, followed by Paris, Istanbul, Barcelona, and Milan. In fact, the lineup of the top 10 in Europe, shown in Chart 10, is unchanged this year from 2012.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart1011europetop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="427" height="612" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart1011europetop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 12 shows the top 10 in Europe in terms of cross-border spending by international visitors. London ranks first, as in previous years. Three out of the top 10, however, are showing negative growth in visitor spending: Paris, Milan and Rome. In contrast, the destination cities showing the strongest growth rates among the top 10 are London at 6.1 percent, Vienna at 6.6 percent and Istanbul at 5.5.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart1213europetop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="444" height="619" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart1213europetop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities<p>Mexico City is the top ranked destination city in Latin America, with 3.1 million international visitor arrivals estimated for 2013. It is followed by Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Lima, San Jose, and others, as shown in Chart 14. The lineup of top 10 in Latin America in 2013 is unchanged from 2012. This apparent stability, however, masks rapidly changing growth dynamics.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart14latinamericatop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="477" height="281" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart14latinamericatop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The very different growth dynamics in international visitor arrivals among the top five destination cities in Latin America are illustrated in Chart 15. In 2011 and 2012, Lima grew strongly, while Mexico City suffered a contraction in 2011 and Buenos Aries in 2012. Meantime, San Jose’s growth rates basically mirrors those of Mexico City, while Sao Paulo’s growth rates managed a steady increase from 2011 to 2013. Even though their growth rates seem to converge in 2013, Lima remains the fastest-growing at 12.7 percent, followed by Sao Paulo at 10.7 percent. If these growth rates are maintained, then Sao Paulo could surpass Mexico City and Buenos Aires in 2017, and Lima overtaking Buenos Aires in 2018.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart15latinamericatop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="487" height="394" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart15latinamericatop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 16 lists the top 10 destination cities in visitor cross-border spending in Latin America. Sao Paulo is in the first rank (third rank in arrivals), followed by Buenos Aires, then Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro and Lima in the top third. While the list of the top 10 in 2013 is the same as in 2012, Bogotá climbed from eighth rank in 2012 to seventh rank in 2013; while Caracas fell from seventh to eighth rank.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart16latinamericatop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="507" height="252" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart16latinamericatop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 17 shows that the growth rates of visitor spending diverged widely over the 2010 to 2012 period, before converging in 2013. Lima is the fastest-growing in 2013 with 13.2 percent, followed by Rio de Janeiro at 12.1 percent, Mexico City at 11.6 percent, Sao Paulo at 11.0 percent, and Buenos Aires at 6.0 percent. But the fastest-growing among the top 10 is Bogotá, in the seventh rank at 14.2 percent (not shown in the chart). In contrast, Caracas which is in the eighth rank (also not shown in the chart), is estimated to contract by 13.3 percent this year.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart17latinamericatop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="512" height="341" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart17latinamericatop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Middle East and Africa Top 10 Destination Cities<p>The top 10 destination cities in international visitor arrivals in the Middle East and Africa region are listed in Chart 18. Dubai has retained the number one rank in the region. The lineup of the top in 2013 is exactly the same as in 2012. One striking feature in the top 10 is how far ahead Dubai is from the rest. Its international arrival number is almost twice that of Riyadh in second rank, and about four times as high as the third-ranked Johannesburg.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart18meatop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="461" height="248" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart18meatop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The growth rates of international visitor arrivals of the top five destination cities in the region are shown in Chart 19. Apart from Riyadh, which pulled away from the rest and grew strongly in 2011, all top five converged in growth rates in 2012 and 2013. During 2010 and 2011, however, Lagos suffered a severe contraction, with visitor numbers declining by about 20 percent each year, before recovering to around 6.9 percent growth in 2012. Growth rates of Amman and Johannesburg in 2011 also stalled before returning to positive growth in 2012 and 2013.</p> <p></p> <p>But the destination city with the strongest growth rate among the top 10 is Abu Dhabi (not shown in the chart), in seventh rank, with its growth in arrivals in 2013 estimated at 16.1 percent. If the same growth rates are maintained in the coming years, Abu Dhabi will overtake Lagos in 2016 and match Johannesburg in 2017.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart19meatop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="501" height="364" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart19meatop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 20 shows the top 10 destination cities in the Middle East and Africa region in terms of visitor cross-border spending. Beirut is in the third rank even though it is not among the top 10 in visitor arrivals, a testimony to its ability to attract visitors that are big spenders. Dubai is in first rank, and just as in the numbers of visitor arrivals, it is striking to see how far ahead of the rest Dubai is. Cross-border spending by international visitors in Dubai is estimated to be over three times higher than the second-ranked Riyadh, 3.7 times higher than the third-ranked Beirut, almost four times higher than the fourth-ranked Johannesburg, and is over six times higher than the sixth-ranked Abu Dhabi.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart20meatop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="436" height="174" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart20meatop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The growth rates of visitor cross-border spending over the 2011 and 2013 period for the top five in Middle East and Africa are seen in Chart 21. Widely divergent patterns can be observed between the top five destination cities. Beirut suffered from a severe contraction in 2011 and 2012, with visitor spending declining by 14.5 and 8.4 percent, respectively, before recovering to 3.4 percent growth in 2013. 2011 was also a year of contraction for Johannesburg and Amman. In contrast, visitor spending in Riyadh grew astonishingly at over 90 percent in 2011, before dropping back to around 20 percent in 2012 and 12 percent in 2013.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart21meatop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="478" height="255" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart21meatop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> North America Top 10 Destination Cities<p>Chart 22 shows the top 10 destination cities in North America by international visitor arrivals. New York is the top ranked destination city in the region, followed by Los Angeles and Miami. The Canadian city Toronto is in the 4th rank, ahead of another Canadian city, Vancouver, which is in 5th rank. They are then followed by San Francisco, Washington D.C., Chicago, Montreal, and Boston. The lineup of these top 10 in North America in 2013 is unchanged from 2012.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart22natop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="422" height="239" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart22natop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 23 provides the growth rates of the North American top five in international visitor arrivals from 2010 to 2013. New York and Vancouver both show moderate growth over this period. Los Angeles, however, declined from close to 30 percent growth in 2010 to less than five percent in 2013. Miami suffered a contraction of five percent in 2011, but has rebounded vigorously to an eight percent gain in 2012, and then close to 11 percent in 2013. Vancouver also contracted slightly in 2011, recovering in 2012, but slid back to a very anemic 0.2 percent growth in 2013.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart23natop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="468" height="380" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart23natop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chart 24 shows the top 10 destination cities in North America by international visitor cross-border spending in 2013. New York is again the top ranked destination city in the region in 2013, followed by Los Angeles in second rank. Vancouver, however, is in third rank despite being in fifth rank in arrivals, beating Toronto and Miami.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2425natop10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="474" height="643" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2425natop10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Origin/Feeder Cities<p>The rise and fall of the divergent growth patterns of destination cities has a lot to do with their respective origin/feeder cities. These are cities where their international visitors come from. Destination cities that are strongly connected to origin/feeder cities with growing economies, rising household disposable incomes, and residents with a healthy appetite for international travel. Destination cities whose traditional origin/feeder cities are suffering from poor economies and stagnant household incomes will decline unless they can tap into new and fast-growing origin/feeder cities—especially those with an expanding and increasingly prosperous middle class—to attract new visitors. This is an ever-changing dynamic picture. To illustrate this dimension of the global destination cities, the five most important origin/feeder cities for each of the global top 10 destination cities are shown in this section.</p> <p>Chart 26 shows the top five origin/feeder cities for the global top ranked destination city, Bangkok. All five origin/feeder cities of Bangkok are in Asia: Singapore, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, and Seoul. Singapore is the biggest origin/feeder city for Bangkok, but the number of visitors from Singapore to Bangkok is estimated to decline by three percent in 2013, whereas visitors to Bangkok from Kuala Lumpur is expected to growth strongly by 15 percent, followed by Hong Kong at 9.5 percent, Tokyo at 7.5 percent and Seoul at 4.4 percent.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart26bangkoktop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="441" height="274" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart26bangkoktop5.jpg"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2728londontop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="437" height="629" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2728londontop5.jpg"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2930singaporetop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="435" height="618" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart2930singaporetop5.jpg"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3132istanbultop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="438" height="595" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3132istanbultop5.jpg"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3334kltop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="438" height="599" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart3334kltop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Barcelona, the destination city in the 10th rank in the world, has London, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, and Munich as its five most important origin/feeder cities. The outlooks for these five are very different, however. Visitors from Frankfurt are expected to increase strongly by 27 percent in 2013. At the other end of the spectrum, visitors from Amsterdam are expected to decline by 6.7 percent, followed by Paris with a decline of 3.8 percent. In between are visitors from Munich, that are set to increase by 7.7 percent, and from London by 6 percent.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart35barcelonatop5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="438" height="267" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/chart35barcelonatop5.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Conclusions<p>International tourism is becoming a vital and resilient export for the leading destination cities in the world and its economic and social benefits are far-reaching. It is well established that the hospitality industry, the transport industry and food and beverage catering industry, among others, are the primary and direct beneficiaries of the demand created by international visitors. Employment in these industries also tends to be labor intensive, which makes tourist spending a potent driver of employment creation in a destination city.</p> <p></p> <p>International visitors to a destination city also seek new and rewarding experiences, especially in the arts, popular culture and entertainment, as well as historical and heritage sites unique to the city. These visitors and their spending are therefore powerful catalysts for nurturing and driving the growth of creative industries and urban cultures, while preserving the past in ways that uniquely contribute to the attractiveness of the city in question. So the benefits of international tourism frequently exceed what can be computed in dollar and cents, but affect the very quality and dynamism of urban culture itself.</p> <p></p> <p>To the extent that the destination cities succeed in attracting more international visitors, there is the inevitable pressure on improving public infrastructure and facilities. With the right policy responses, a virtuous circle can be set in motion; more international visitors leading to more and better investment to improve the cityscape and the overall urban environment, which in turn makes the destination city more attractive to more international visitors. Businesses are then encouraged to invest in the city, further improving employment and income. Thus, in a slower-growing global economy, destination cities could play a much larger role in sustaining global service trade while supporting their respective national economies through stronger growth in employment and income in their urban economies. Destination cities have always been important, but they are set to become even more so in the future.</p> <p>Apart from the global top 20 and the regional top 10 destination cities described above, we also need to pay attention to some of the smaller destination cities which are also the fastest-growing in the world. Table 2 presents the global top 20 in terms of their growth rates in international visitor arrivals from 2009 to 2013, ranked from the set of destination cities that have a minimum of one million international visitor arrivals in 2013.4 Bangkok and Singapore, from the global top 20 are among them. But many are neither in the global top 20 nor in the regional top 10. However, they are the destination cities to watch for the future.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/table2.jpg"><img width="393" height="446" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/table2.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><sup>4</sup> This is to exclude the really small destination cities with only a few hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, which despite their fast rates of growth, would not be able to realistically challenge the position of the current leading destination cities with annual arrivals in the tens of millions.</p> <p></p> Appendix A: Assessing Air Travel Connectivity<p>This is a measure that seeks to gauge the breadth of a city’s international connectivity in air travel in terms of established flights linking the city with others in the rest of the world, as well as the strength of each connection in terms of flight frequencies.</p> <p>Using Amsterdam as an example, and each city paired with Amsterdam as the departure node, we calculate the connectivity score for the city pair as:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic1.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p>where Weekly Flight Frequency is the number of flights per week departing from Amsterdam to a particular city. This is the main driver of the connectivity score and it is sourced from OAG Flight Schedules Data. Airlines will also provide their flight schedules for one year ahead, which is how we obtained the weekly flight frequencies for 2013. While the number of cities that Amsterdam is connected to determines Amsterdam’s raw connectivity, the strength of each connection is measured by the weekly flight frequency and weighted by whether or not the connection is inter-regional or intra-regional.</p> <p></p> <p>Inter/Intra-Regional Multiplier: International Destinations from Amsterdam that are Inter-regional (i.e. outside of Western Europe, in the case of Amsterdam) are weighted at twice (i.e. x 2) that of International Destinations within the same region as Amsterdam (i.e. intra-regional, within Western Europe). City Pair with Max Weekly Flight Frequencies: This number is used to normalize the raw connectivity scores. It has absolutely no effect on the relative scores between cities and is used only for ease of presentation when viewing the data.</p> <p></p> <p>Every Amsterdam ABC city pair is thus given its own connectivity value. We add them up to get a connectivity value for Amsterdam itself. We now do this for every one of the 132 cities. Once we have the connectivity scores for all 132 cities, we perform a final normalization so that the scores can be presented out of a maximum of 100 (Index format). The divisor for this is the highest raw 2009 score (in this case London’s connectivity score).</p> Appendix B: Methodology for Estimating Arrivals and Cross-border Spending<p>&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Estimates of Overnight Visitors to a Destination City<p>“Arrivals” in each of the destination cities is defined as international arrivals that actually stayed in the destination city for at least one night. The sources for city-level overnight arrivals by foreign visitors are typically the National Statistics Boards of the relevant countries or their Tourism Boards. The indicators for 117 out of the 132 cities were directly sourced for or estimated from official data. The other 15 cities where such data are not available were estimated using the Airflow model, and we sourced for the following official data in order of preference:</p> <p></p> <ul> <li>Foreign overnight arrivals by air at the city level or foreign overnight arrivals at paid accommodations at the city level</li> </ul> <p></p> <ul> <li>Foreign number of nights stayed at paid accommodations at the city level</li> </ul> <p></p> <p>In cases where official data or estimates derived from official data do not cover 2012 but do cover some earlier year (2009,2010 or 2011), we have projected from the years where data was available using the growth rates from the Airflow model. For all cases, forecasts for 2013 are projected using growth rates from the Airflow model.</p> <p></p> The Airflow Model<p>Every month the OAG collects the airline flight schedules for the next 12 months on a global basis. Where previously we only used the data from key months (and the associated 12 month schedule forecasts arising for those months) as the basis of our one-year projections, we now use the full 12 months of flight schedule data to construct our forecasts. Using only non-stop flights we extract for each city to city pair the number of:</p> <p>Weekly flight frequencies</p> <p>Passenger capacity</p> <p>On any airline flight route, the average percentage of seats filled (called the “load factor”) varies. This information is extremely sensitive for competitive reasons and airlines will only release this data with a one-year lag. Nevertheless, by using the historical load factors on most city-to-city flight routes, we can estimate a proxy for the current and forecasted load factor. We used a weighted average</p> <p>of the historical load factors with heavier emphasis on the most recent years and it ranges between 30 to 100 percent, but airlines will try to maintain a load factor of between 70 to 80 percent by changing the number of weekly flights or by changing the aircraft type to increase or decrease passenger capacity. As such, for determining the years for which we do not have load factor numbers, we apply an increasing improvement of 5 percent per year on the historical average, starting at 70 percent and improving to 85 percent over time. Using the data above we can now gain a first estimate of the number of passengers departing from one city to another using:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic2.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p>On any flight, there will also be passengers who are returning home after having visited the departure city. For example, in the case of a Caracas to Miami flight, there will be US passengers returning back to Miami after having visited Caracas. We want to net out those passengers. As airlines do not reveal the residency of their passengers, there is no way to know at a city-to-city level what portion of passengers on each flight is returning home. We need to go to the country-country level for this, and for that we use UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization) data. They collect the number of annual residents traveling between country pairs and we use these numbers to create a ratio of:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic3.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p>For example, in the case of the Caracas-Miami route, in 2009 there were 340,403 Venezuelans traveling to the US and 43,752 US residents in total traveling to Venezuela via the Miami–Caracas route, implying a ratio of 88.6 percent, which is the estimated ratio of Venezuelans on any given flight from Venezuela to the US. We use this ratio to net out returning US residents and to obtain the number of Venezuelans traveling from Caracas to Miami as follows:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic4.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p>Where UNWTO data was not available for a country pair (data was available for 76 percent of the country pairs), data was sourced at the national level where available (2 percent of city pairs), or we used the ratio of the International Monetary Fund Balance of Payments travel debit accounts to construct a secondary proxy ratio. In this release, we have focused on key border regions around the world where the UNWTO cross-country visitor data may give less accurate ratios. In all cases, the general idea was to use overnight visitors (where data was available) instead of overall visitors to construct more accurate departure-arrival ratios of air travelers. This has resulted in some shifts to the flow of travel between these areas (and therefore overall expenditure as well). The border regions include the Mexican-US border, EU countries which share a border, the Singapore-Malaysia border, and the Ukraine-Russia border.</p> <p></p> <p>In this release, out of the 132 cities, 15 of them were estimated using the airflow model, as we were unable to source for official statistics. They are:<b></b></p> <p><b>Eastern Europe: </b>The 5 Russian cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vladivostok,<b> </b>Novosibirsk, and Yekaterinburg: Kiev, Minsk, Almaty)</p> <p></p> <p><b>Asia: </b>Dhaka, Osaka, Tehran</p> <p></p> <p><b>Africa: </b>Dakar, Lagos, Accra</p> <p></p> <p><b>Latin America: </b>San Jose (Costa Rica)</p> <p>For all 132 cities, the Airflow Model was used to make projections for 2013.</p> <p>As explained previously, on any given flight there are departing residents from the departure country, returning visitors and a third group of residuals. The residuals group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, and very high for hub cities. To estimate the proportion of this group, we use two main groups:</p> <p><b>Non-residents</b> (of either the origin or destination country) who from the origin city are visiting the destination city</p> <p><b>Residents of the origin country AND non-residents</b> (of either the origin or destination country) who will be <i>transiting</i> through the destination city without visiting it.</p> <p>We are interested in Type A but in order to separate the residuals into its 2 components we use a relative connectivity ratio “RCR” that is based on the International Air Connectivity Index (IACI) scores previously created where:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic5.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We then separate out Type A adding:</p> <p>A {Non-residents (of either the departing or arrival country) who from the departure city are visiting the arrival city} to the number of residents visiting the arrival country {calculated earlier} to obtain the estimated number of travelers who will visit the destination city.</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic6.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p>Estimating Visitor Spend in Destination Countries</p> <p>In a few cases the estimated visitor spend was directly sourced from official statistics as in the case of London, Bangkok, Hanoi, and Ho Chi Minh.</p> <p>For the rest of the cities we looked at country-to-country data to estimate the average expenditure of outbound travelers. City-to-city expenditure data is difficult to obtain, as partial figures do exist but these are not publicly available. For this we use the United Nations’ Trade in Services database (travel component), which does not include transport, i.e. airfares at the paired country level. For country pairs where this data is not available, we default to using the average expenditure per traveler in destination countries using IMF Balance of Payments Travel Credit data and the total number of visitors to the country.</p> <p>The formula is as follows:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic7.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Based on the latest year available for average expenditure per traveler, we then project the average expenditure per traveler using the nominal growth rate of GDP per Capita provided by the IMF WEO forecast database. Using the estimated number of residents flying from each departure city to each destination city, we can then calculate the estimated expenditure by multiplying in the average expenditure to obtain city-to-city expenditure estimates.</p> <p></p> <p>Based on the latest year available for average expenditure per traveler we then project the average expenditure per traveler using the nominal growth rate of GDP per Capita provided by the IMF WEO forecast database. Using the estimated number of residents flying from each departure city to each destination city, we can then calculate the estimated expenditure by multiplying in the average expenditure to obtain city-to-city expenditure estimates. That is for each city pair:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/pic8.jpg"></p> <p></p> <p></p> Glossary<p>Visitor: A person who is traveling on a non-stop direct flight to their destination and is not a resident of the destination country. A visitor may make more than one trip, and each trip counts as a new visit. That is, a person who makes two trips to a destination, as described above, counts as two visitors to that destination. A person on the return leg home does not count as a visitor.</p> <p>Visitor Spend: The estimated total amount that visitors spend in the destination city/country. It excludes air ticket expenditure required to get the visitor to the destination city.</p> <p></p> <p>Origin City: The city from which passengers embark on their flight to the destination city. Passengers who count as visitors may be residents of the origin city/country or may be non-residents from other countries (but not the destination city/country).</p> <p></p> <p>Destination City: The city where passengers disembark (leave the airport) and are counted as visitors (which only includes non-residents of the destination city/country).</p> <p></p> <p>City/Country: Sometimes visitors and visitor spend is described at the country or city level interchangeably. For example, visitors from Frankfurt to London are described as non-residents and residents of the origin country visiting the destination country via London. By residents of the origin country, we mean German residents inclusive of residents of Frankfurt. This is because residents from other parts of Germany may have domestically flown or driven to Frankfurt to take their flight to London together with residents of the Frankfurt urban area. Non-residents of the origin country include, for example, Singaporeans on their way to London who have either visited Frankfurt before going to London or who are simply transiting through Frankfurt on their way to London. The point is, the origin city is the most recent place from which travelers embarked before arriving at their destination, which is a constraint of using only non-stop flights. Finally, visiting the destination country via London implies that visitors may disembark in London to visit the city, but they could also from there visit other parts of the country via a domestic flight.</p> <p></p> Appendix C: Coverage of the Global Destination Cities Index<p>132 cities are covered by the Global Destination Cities Index.</p> <p><b>Asia/Pacific (42 cities):</b></p> <p>Ahmedabad, Almaty, Bangkok, Beijing, Bengaluru, Chengdu, Chennai, Coimbatore, Colombo, Dalian, Delhi, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Islamabad, Jakarta, Karachi, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, Manila, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nanjing, Osaka, Pune, Qingdao, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei, Tianjin, Tokyo, Xi an, Xiamen</p> <p><b>Europe (36 cities):</b></p> <p>Amsterdam, Ankara Athens Barcelona Berlin Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Copenhagen, Dublin, Dusseldorf, Edinburgh, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kiev, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Minsk, Moscow, Munich, Novosibirsk, Paris, Prague, Rome, Sofia, St Petersburg, Stockholm, Vienna, Vladivostok, Warsaw, Yekaterinburg, Zurich</p> <p><b>Latin America (19 cities)</b></p> <p>Belo Horizonte, Bogotá, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Cordoba, Curitiba, Lima, Medellin, Mexico City, Monterrey, Montevideo, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, San Jose, Santiago, Santo Domingo, Sao Paulo</p> <p><b>Middle East and Africa (21 cities)</b></p> <p>Abu Dhabi, Accra, Amman, Beira, Beirut, Cairo, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dakar, Damascus, Dubai, Durban, kampala, Johannesburg, Lagos, Maputo, Nairobi, Riyadh, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Tunis</p> <p><b>North America (14 cities)</b></p> <p>Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Montreal, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Toronto, Vancouver, Washington</p> <p></p> About the Author<p>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</p> <p></p> <p>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong is currently HSBC Distinguished Professor of International Business at the University of British Columbia, Canada; and Global Economic Advisor at MasterCard Worldwide.</p> <p></p> <p>Yuwa is an economist and business strategist with 25 years of experience gained in over thirty countries. He is a Canadian who grew up in Vancouver, British Columbia, and spent the last 20 years working in Europe, Sub-Sahara Africa, the Indian Sub-continent, and Asia/ Pacific. He has served as strategy advisor to over thirty leading multinational companies.</p> <p></p> <p>In 2010, Yuwa was appointed as Global Economic Advisor to MasterCard Worldwide. Prior to this role, he was Economic Advisor to MasterCard in Asia/ Pacific, a position he held since 2001. His other appointments are: Advisor at Southern Capital Group, a private equity fund (since 2007); member of the Investment Council of ICICI, India’s largest private bank (since 2008); and Advisor at New Harbor Capital Partners, a hedge fund (Since 2011).</p> <p></p> <p>Yuwa is a frequent speaker at international conferences and a regular commentator in the broadcast and print media on economic, policy and business issues. He is a published author on consumer markets, economic development, trade, and international relations. He was voted “Communicator of the Year” in Asia by the Asia/Pacific Association of Public Relations Professionals. He wrote a regular column in Forbes Asia called “Asian Angles” in 2005 and 2006.and guest lecturer at the Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago from 2004 - 06.</p> <p></p> <p>As a student of philosophy, political science, and economics, Yuwa studied at Trent University and pursued post-graduate training at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University in Canada. He also received post-doctoral training in energy and resource economics and scenario forecast and planning.</p> <p></p> <p>He lives with his wife and their cat on Salt Spring Island, off the west coast of Canada, and is an eager apprentice in the fine art of gardening.</p> <p></p> This is the third instalment of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2013/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-report-20132013-05-31T16:00:00.000Z2013-05-31T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Yuwa Hedrick-WongMasterCard Global Destination Cities Index<p><b>Introduction</b></p> <p>This is the&nbsp; second&nbsp; edition&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. During the period since the publication of the first edition of this index (launched in 2Q, 2011), growth&nbsp; of world&nbsp; economic&nbsp; output&nbsp;&nbsp; has&nbsp; slowed,&nbsp; declining&nbsp; from 5.2% in 2010 to 3.8% in 2011, with the growth rate of 2012 projected to drop further to 3.3%1.However, cross-border travel by air between&nbsp; 132 of the most important cities in the world covered by this index (see Appendix A for the list of the cities and their regional distribution) is still growing both in terms of numbers of visitors and their cross-border spending. The total visitor numbers and cross-border spending for the world's top 20 destination&nbsp; cities are&nbsp; summarized&nbsp; in Table&nbsp; 1.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE1-GLOBALTOP20.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="375" height="260" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE1-GLOBALTOP20.jpg"></a></p> <p><b>Chart 1. Global Top 20 destination Cities by International Visitors(2012)</b></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/GLOBALTOP20INTERNATIONAL.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="423" height="368" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/GLOBALTOP20INTERNATIONAL.jpg"></a></p> <p>While the number of visitors in 2012 is growing at 5.7%, the cross-border spending by these visitors is far more impressive at 10.6%. A similar picture is seen at the regional level.The overall pattern is clear; cross-border travel by air is a resilient trend that is embraced by growing numbers of people worldwide, underpinned &nbsp;by visitors' robust willingness and capacity to spend. Both the cost of airfare as well as household incomes have fluctuated from time to time; and no doubt &nbsp;they will continue to do so in the future. But the growing need and desire to travel, especially by air, are set to expand in spite of the ups and downs &nbsp;of the business cycles. &nbsp;The leading global cities, which are also some of the &nbsp;most sought after destinations by visitors from different parts of the world, will continue to thrive. </p> <p></p> Global Top 20 Destination Cities<p>Chart 1 presents the world's top 20 destination cities by numbers of visitors in 2012 (Appendix A provides a detailed explanation of the methodology used). As in 2011, London ranks first in the world, with close to 17 million visitors in 2012, which is about &nbsp;1.1% &nbsp;higher than in 2011. Paris has also retained its place in the second rank, with&nbsp;16 million visitors, but this represents &nbsp;a drop of 0.6% compared with 2011. The two Asian cities of Bangkok and Singapore also retain their 2011 rankings of third and fourth place respectively. Their &nbsp;2012 &nbsp; visitor numbers, &nbsp; 12.2 &nbsp; million in Bangkok and 11.8 million in Singapore, however, represent very robust growth of 6.5% and 9.9% respectively.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/GLOBALTOP20.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="466" height="396" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/GLOBALTOP20.jpg"></a></p> <p>While the first to fourth ranks in the top 20 in 2012 are the same as in 2011, &nbsp;there &nbsp;are some changes &nbsp;in the &nbsp;other &nbsp;ranks. Table 2 shows the changes by comparing the 2011 and 2012 rankings. Istanbul (fifth in 2012) displaces Hong Kong (fifth) and moves up by one rank. Dubai (eighth), Frankfurt (ninth), Kuala Lumpur (tenth) and Seoul (11) all move up one by rank as Rome falls by four ranks to 12. Shanghai (14) displaces Barcelona (15) and moves up by one rank. Other cities that are unchanged at their 2011 position: Madrid (7), New York (13), Milan (16), Amsterdam (17), Vienna (18), Beijing (19), and Taipei (20).</p> <p>The world's top 20 destination &nbsp;cities by visitors' cross-border spending are shown in Table 3, which are somewhat &nbsp;different from the rankings by &nbsp;visitor numbers &nbsp;(see &nbsp;Appendix &nbsp;B &nbsp;for &nbsp;the methodology for estimating cross-border spending by visitors in the destination cities). London is again the world top ranked destination &nbsp;city and New York still ranks second by visitor spending, although &nbsp;it ranks only 13 &nbsp;by visitor numbers.</p> <p><b>Table 2. Comparison of 2011 and 2012 Rankings by Visitor Numbers</b></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE2-COMPARISONOF20112012.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE2-COMPARISONOF20112012.jpg"></a></p> <p>Bangkok moves up by one rank, displacing Paris as the third-ranking city by visitor spending. Four cities from high-income &nbsp;countries &nbsp;move up &nbsp;in ranks: Singapore (fifth, up by two ranks), Seoul (tenth, up by one rank) and Dubai (18, up by one rank), reflecting their higher costs of living and hence visitors tend to spend more in these cities. Tokyo (14) moves up by four ranks by virtue of its recovery in 2012 from the triple disasters of 2011. Istanbul also moves up by one rank to 11. It is worth noting that &nbsp;all these 'upwardly mobile' destination cities are in either Asia or the Middle East, reflecting stronger &nbsp;growth &nbsp;in both &nbsp;visitor numbers and cross-border spending in these regions. For a destination like Sydney (in the eighth rank), which is a long way from anywhere else with the exception of New Zealand, visitors also tend to stay longer once they get there, and they spend more there as a result. Five cities in high-income countries move down by one or two ranks: Paris (fourth, by one rank), Los Angeles (sixth, by one rank), Madrid (seventh, by one rank), Zurich (twelfth, by two ranks) and &nbsp;Rome (19, by two ranks).</p> <p><b>Table 3. Global Top 20 Destination Cities by International Visitor Spend &nbsp;(2012)</b></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE3-GLOBALTOP20.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE3-GLOBALTOP20.jpg"></a></p> <p>The changes in the rankings by visitor spending are summarized in Table 4. Bangkok (third rank) moves up one rank, displacing Paris, and Singapore (fifth rank) moves up two ranks displacing Los Angeles and Madrid. Seoul (tenth rank) and Istanbul (eleventh rank) both move up one rank displacing Zurich. Tokyo (fourteenth rank), recovering from the triple disasters in 2011, moves up three &nbsp;ranks to displace Hong Kong, Barcelona, and Miami. Finally, Dubai (eighteenth rank) moves up one rank to displace Rome.</p> <p><b>Table 4. Comparison of 2011 and 2012 Rankings by Visitor Spending</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE4.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE4.jpg"></a></b></p> Asia/Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities<p>Asia/Pacific exhibits the strongest growth in visitor numbers and their cross-border spending among all the regions of the world. As summarized in Table 5, visitor numbers grow by 9.5% in 2012 to reach 77.6 million in the top 10 destination cities in Asia/Pacific; and their cross-border spending increases to US$104.7 billion in 2012 from US$90.8 billion in 2011, representing an impressive 15.3% growth.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE5-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE5-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top 10 destination &nbsp;cities by visitor numbers in Asia/Pacific are shown in Chart 2. Bangkok is again the number one destination &nbsp;city in Asia (third in the world), a reflection of its strong and abiding appeal &nbsp;to tourists from the &nbsp;rest of the world. Tokyo is expected to recover from the 2011 disasters &nbsp;with &nbsp;21.5% &nbsp; growth &nbsp;rate &nbsp;over 2011&nbsp;while Taipei registers the second-strongest growth rate at 15.1%, &nbsp;reflecting the strong interest of Chinese tourists from the mainland in visiting Taiwan. This is followed by Beijing, which shows a growth rate of 14.7%.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART2-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART2-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>In terms of visitor cross-border spending, the top 10 in the region are summarized in Table 6. Bangkok, in first rank, commands &nbsp;visitor cross-border spending of US$19.3 billion in 2012. This is followed by Singapore with US$12.7 billion and Sydney with US$11.0 billion. Tokyo's (seventh) recovery rate &nbsp;of &nbsp;24.2% &nbsp;in 2012 &nbsp;puts &nbsp;it as &nbsp;the fastest-growing market for visitor spending, while Taipei (sixth) has the second-highest &nbsp;growth rate at 20.5%, &nbsp;reflecting the impact of rising tourist visits from the mainland of China. This is followed by Beijing at &nbsp;19.2%, &nbsp;and &nbsp;Bangkok at &nbsp;16.6%. Growth rates of visitors' cross-border spending are generally very high in Asia/Pacific. Sydney and Hong Kong, at 9.7% and 9.5% respectively, have the 'lowest' &nbsp;growth rates among the top 10.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE6-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE6-ASIAPACIFICTOP10.jpg"></a></p> Europe Top 10 Destination Cities<p>While Asia/Pacific has the highest growth rates in visitor numbers and cross-border spending, Europe has the highest visitor numbers and cross-border spending. As Table 5 shows, collectively Europe's top 10 destination cities command a total number of visitors of 98.2 million in 2012, an increase of 2.8% &nbsp;from 95.5 million in 2011. The increase in visitor cross-border spending is higher at 8.1%, for the total to reach US$115 billion in 2012.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE7-EUROPETOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE7-EUROPETOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>Chart 3 presents Europe's top 10 destination cities by visitor numbers. &nbsp;London, the &nbsp;world's number one ranked destination city, is naturally also in the first rank in Europe. Similarly, Paris, which ranks second in the world, is also in second rank in Europe. The third rank, is occupied by Istanbul, which moves up by one rank in its world position to fifth with an impressive growth of visitor numbers of 14.7%. &nbsp;In comparison, London's growth rate in 2012 is very low at 1.1%, and Paris is actually seeing a decline of 0.6% &nbsp;in its visitor numbers. Frankfurt (fifth in Europe) moves up one rank to displace Rome (sixth) which falls by one rank.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART3-EUROPETOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART3-EUROPETOP10.jpg"></a></p> Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities<p>The top 10 destination cities in Europe by visitor cross-border spending are shown in Table 8. London and Paris are again in first and second ranks respectively. Istanbul is in fifth rank behind Madrid and Frankfurt, and exhibits the highest growth rate at a very impressive 20.7%, &nbsp;which is way ahead of Vienna (in ninth rank) with the second-fastest &nbsp;growth &nbsp;rate &nbsp;of visitor cross-border spending of 16.3%. &nbsp;This is followed by Zurich (in sixth rank) at 13.9%, &nbsp;then &nbsp;London at 10.3%. Madrid, &nbsp;alone &nbsp;among &nbsp;the &nbsp;top &nbsp;10 &nbsp;in Europe, shows a slight decline in its visitor cross-border spending at -0.8%. Cross-border spending by visitors is typically high in Europe. For instance, in London, visitor cross-border spending in 2012 is estimated &nbsp;at &nbsp;US$21.1 &nbsp;billion, and &nbsp;in Paris at US$17.8 billion.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE8-EUROPETOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE8-EUROPETOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top &nbsp;10 &nbsp;destination &nbsp;cities in Latin America command a total number of visitors of 16.6 million in 2012, up 7.3% &nbsp;from 2011. Cross-border spending in these top 10 cities in 2012 is also up by 7.9%, reaching 16.3 billion. Spending per visit in 2012, however, is barely growing; just 0.6% at US$982 per visit, compared with US$977 in 2011.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE9-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE9-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top 10 destination cities in Latin America are presented &nbsp;in Chart 4. Eight cities occupy the same top 10 positions in 2012 as in 2011, while Rio de Janeiro(eighth in Latin American) moves up by one rank displacing Caracas(ninth). The strongest growth is in Rio de Janeiro with an impressive 28.6%. Quito, in tenth rank, has the second-highest growth rate at 18.8%. If these growth rates persist, Rio de Janeiro and Quito could move up the ranks very quickly in the next few years</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART4-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART4-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"></a></p> <p>Table 10 shows visitors' cross-border spending in the top 10 destination cities in Latin America. Buenos Aires is in first rank with US$3 billion of visitor cross-border spending in 2012, an increase of 6.7% from 2011, and moving it from the second to the top rank in the region. In contrast, Sao Paulo drops to the second rank after being top ranked in 2011, with visitor cross-border spending there declining by 5%. Quito, in the tenth &nbsp;rank, shows the strongest growth rate at an astonishing 26.3%, &nbsp; consistent &nbsp;with &nbsp;its &nbsp;strong &nbsp;growth &nbsp;of 18.8% &nbsp;in visitor numbers. This is followed by Bogota at an impressive 24.8%, &nbsp;Rio de Janeiro at 16.1%, &nbsp;and San Jose at 15%. Buenos Aires is not the only city that sees visitor cross-spending declining this year, however. &nbsp;Visitor &nbsp;cross-border spending in Caracas in 2012 is in a sharp decline of 9.3% compared with the 2011 level.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE10-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE10-LATINAMERICATOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> Middle East & Africa Top 10 Destination Cities<p>The number of visitors to the top 10 destination cities in the Middle East and Africa in 2012 is an increase of 7.2% from 2011, bringing the total to just below 29 million. Total cross-border spending by visitors in these cities shows a more impressive growth of 10.4%, reaching US$34.1 billion.&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE11-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE11-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top 10 destination cities of the region are presented in Chart 5. Dubai maintains its number one position, while showing a strong 15.3% growth in the number of visitors in 2012. Cairo also retains its second-place position with 8.3% growth in 2012, suggesting that tourism there is recovering well after the &nbsp;turmoil last year. Abu Dhabi is in the third rank, up from sixth rank in 2011, propelled by an impressive 17.9% &nbsp;growth. Casablanca (sixth) dropped one rank in 2012 from its 2011 ranking while Tel Aviv (fifth) and Amman (ninth) dropped two ranks each. All three cities are also registering a decline in visitor numbers. Riyadh (seventh) and Nairobi (eighth) both increase by one rank with robust growth of 10.4% and 10.0% respectively in visitor numbers. Tunis retains its tenth rank position, unchanged from 2011, but is showing a strong growth of 17.7% in 2012, a clear sign of its return to normality after the upheaval of the Arab Spring last year.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART5-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART5-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>Table 12 summarizes the visitor cross-border spending in the top 10 destination &nbsp;cities in the Middle East and Africa. Not only is Dubai in the number one position as in 2011, its visitor cross-border &nbsp;spending &nbsp;growth &nbsp;is a &nbsp;very impressive 18.5% in 2012. Beirut also retains its second rank position, with a 6.2% &nbsp;growth &nbsp;in 2012, &nbsp;despite not making the top 10 by visitor numbers. This is because the average cross-border spending per visit in Beirut is very high, estimated at US$4,522. In comparison, the average cross-border spending per visit is US$1,004 in Dubai and US$1,387 in Tel Aviv.</p> <p>Abu Dhabi, in sixth rank, &nbsp;has &nbsp;the &nbsp;highest growth at 20.7%, consistent with its performance in moving up from sixth rank to third rank in visitor numbers. Tunis, at tenth rank, is only slightly&nbsp;behind Abu Dhabi with a growth rate of 19.8%. The only one among &nbsp;the top 10 with a decline in visitor cross-border spending &nbsp;(-7.2%) is Casablanca (seventh).</p> <p><br> <a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE12-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE12-MIDDLEEASTTOP10.jpg"></a></p> North America Top 10 Destination Cities<p>Collectively the top 10 destination cities in North America command a total of 30.2 million visitors in 2012, up 4.1% from 2011, and US$73.8 billion of visitor cross-border spending, up 5.8% &nbsp;from 2011. &nbsp;The North American region also has the highest average visitor cross-border spending per visit among &nbsp;all the &nbsp;regions &nbsp;in &nbsp;the &nbsp;world. &nbsp;At US$2,442 per &nbsp;visit in 2012, &nbsp;it is far ahead &nbsp;of US$1,379 in Asia/Pacific, US$1,181 in Middle East and Africa, US$1,172 in Europe, and US$982 in Latin America.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE13-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE13-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top 10 destination cities in visitor numbers in North America are presented &nbsp;in Chart 6. Seven of these 10 cities are in the same position as in 2011. New York is in number one position, followed by Los Angeles in second rank, and the Canadian city of Toronto in the third rank. Toronto, however, has the highest growth at 7.6%, followed by Washington, DC at 7.2%, &nbsp;Houston at 6.2%, &nbsp;Miami at 5.5%, &nbsp;and New York at 5.2%. &nbsp;Washington, DC (seventh) moves up two ranks and displaces both Atlanta (eighth) and Vancouver (ninth) which both fall by one rank. Across the board, these top North American cities are seeing healthy growth rates in their visitor numbers in 2012.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART6-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART6-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>Table 14 summarizes the visitor cross-border spending of the top 10 destination cities in the region. All 10 cities in 2012 are in the same position as 2011. New York and Los Angeles are again in first and second positions in their rankings by visitor numbers while Miami is in the third rank. The Canadian cities of Toronto and Vancouver are in sixth and tenth &nbsp;rank respectively. Toronto, however, has the highest growth at 10.2%, &nbsp;followed by Miami at 8.4% and Washington at 7.7%.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE14-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE14-NORTHAMERICATOP10.jpg"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Origin Cities: Where the Arrivals Come From<p>Apart from estimating visitors numbers and visitor cross-border spending, the data analytics embedded in the Global Destination Cities Index is also capable of indentifying where visitors are coming from (their 'origin' cities) for each of the 132 cities covered in the Index, and estimating how much these visitors spend.</p> <p>For example, the top five origin cities for London are Dublin, New York, Stockholm, Amsterdam and Frankfurt, as shown in Chart 7. In 2012, it is estimated that there are 850,000 visitors from Dublin, spending US$482 million in London. New York is the second largest origin city for London,sending 756,000 visitors to London in 2012, with a total cross-border spending of US$1,088 million. Thus, New York is the largest origin city for London for cross-border spending. On a per-visit basis, visitors from New York are also big spenders in London, with an average of US$1,439 per visit, much higher than &nbsp;the &nbsp;average of visitors from Stockholm at US$808 and from Dublin at US$567 per visit. In terms of growth, however, Frankfurt has the highest growth rate of visitors to London at 20.8%, &nbsp;followed by Dublin at 8.6% and New York at 5.5%. &nbsp;Stockholm's visitor number is, in contrast, down by 2.7% in 2012.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART7-TOPORIGINCITIES-LONDON.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART7-TOPORIGINCITIES-LONDON.jpg"></a></p> <p>Bangkok is the number one destination city in Asia/Pacific by both &nbsp;visitor numbers &nbsp;and visitor cross-border spending. The top five origin cities for Bangkok are shown in Chart 8, and they are Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong, Seoul and Kuala Lumpur, all from within the Asia/Pacific region. On a per-visit basis, visitors from Hong Kong and Tokyo have the &nbsp;highest &nbsp;spending &nbsp;at US$2,401 and US$2,265 per visit respectively. In comparison, &nbsp;visitors from Singapore, &nbsp;Seoul and &nbsp;Kuala Lumpur spend US$1,039, US$1,404 and US$773 per visit respectively. &nbsp;Growth rates of visitors from these origin cities are uniformly high, with visitor growth &nbsp;rates from Singapore, Seoul and Kuala Lumpur exceeding 20%.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART8-BANGKOK-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART8-BANGKOK-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p>Dubai is the &nbsp;top ranked destination &nbsp;city in the Middle East and Africa region. Its top five origin cities are presented &nbsp;in Chart &nbsp;9. London is the number one origin city for Dubai, with 803,000 visitors. While the growth rate of London visitors is relatively modest &nbsp;at 5.1%, &nbsp;London visitors, at US$1,495, have the highest spending &nbsp;in Dubai per visit among the top five origin cities. In comparison, the average spending per visit by visitors from the other four top origin cities is just below US$900. But the growth rates of visitors from Munich, Frankfurt and Paris are astonishingly high at 29.5%, &nbsp;22.1% &nbsp;and 20.2% &nbsp;respectively.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART9-DUBAI-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART9-DUBAI-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p>In the Latin American region, the top ranking destination city is Mexico City. The top five origin cities for Mexico City are all in the &nbsp;US: Miami, Houston, New York, Los Angeles, and Atlanta, as shown in Chart 10. Their average spending per visit is estimated at around US$600. But there are significant differences between &nbsp;them in terms of growth. &nbsp;Visitors from Miami and &nbsp;New York to Mexico City are growing at 17.1% and 12.5% respectively, whereas visitor numbers from Los Angeles and Houston are declining by 20.7% &nbsp;and 0.8% respectively.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART10-MEXICIOCITYTOPORIGINCITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART10-MEXICIOCITYTOPORIGINCITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p>New York is the top destination city in North America, and its top five origin cities are London, Toronto, Tokyo, Paris and Frankfurt. Growth rates of visitors from these &nbsp;origin cities vary a great deal. London and Frankfurt visitors are growing only modestly at 3.9% &nbsp;and &nbsp;2.8% &nbsp;respectively. Toronto visitors, however, are growing at an astonishing rate of 28.4%. &nbsp;In contrast, visitor numbers from Tokyo and Paris are shrinking by 3.5%&nbsp;and 6.1% respectively. The decline in visitors from Tokyo has the biggest impact on spending, as the average spending by Tokyo visitors is estimated at an impressive US$3,878, much higher than visitors from Toronto (US$945), London (US$1,663), and Paris (US$1,361). Frankfurt visitors spend, on average, a relatively high US$2,505 per visit.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART11-NEWYORK-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/CHART11-NEWYORK-TOPORIGINCITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p>In estimating these visitor numbers, the situation becomes complicated when the cities involved are 'hub' cities, such as London, Dubai, and Frankfurt. While London itself is a major hub city, three of its top five origin cities are also considered &nbsp;important &nbsp;hub &nbsp;cities: New York, Frankfurt and Amsterdam. The methodology of estimating the 'true' &nbsp;visitors from origin cities to destination cities is detailed in Appendix A. But it is useful to illustrate how it is done with a real example. Box A applies the methodology to London and its top five origin cities to illustrate how the distortion caused by the 'hub effect' is eliminated in order to arrive at more accurate estimates of visitor numbers.</p> <p></p> <p></p> Box A. Eliminating the Distortions Caused by 'The Hub Effect'<p>A number of destination cities are important 'hubs' &nbsp;for air travel connectivity, and they typically have very large numbers of transit passengers arriving and departing. &nbsp;In some hub cities, transit passengers account for up to two-thirds of the total arrivals. So it is inaccurate to just count the arrival numbers as 'visitors' to these cities. Appendix A provides a detailed explanation of how the 'hub effect' is being dealt with in order to estimate more accurately the visitor numbers in these cities.</p> <p>The process &nbsp;for &nbsp;eliminating &nbsp;the &nbsp;distortion caused by the hub effect can be illustrated with London and its top five origin cities. London is itself a major hub, with many passengers arriving only to take another departure flight for their onward journey. Among its top origin cities, New York, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam are also important &nbsp;hub &nbsp;cities. Many arrivals in London from these cities are not residents of these cities; instead, they had traveled to these cities from elsewhere &nbsp;in order &nbsp;to take &nbsp;a flight to London. So these non-resident arrivals cannot be counted as visitors to London from these cities.</p> <p>Table 15 outlines the process of how the distortion caused by the hub effect is being systematically eliminated.</p> <p>1.&nbsp;The arrivals in London can be broken down into two key categories: visitors (column 1) and non-visitors. Non-visitors are in turn broken &nbsp;down &nbsp;into two &nbsp;sub-categories: &nbsp;transit passengers &nbsp;arriving in London to transfer to another outbound flight (column 4), and London residents returning home after traveling abroad (column 5).</p> <p>2.&nbsp;The visitor numbers shown in column 1 also consist of two subcategories: visitors who are residents of the &nbsp;origin city (column 2) and who are not residents of the origin city (column 3).</p> <p>Following this process, we have estimated that there are only 838,426 &nbsp;'true' &nbsp;visitors arriving in London from Dublin (column 2). The total number of 850,047 (column 1) of visitors to London from Dublin includes 11,621 (column 3) who are non-residents of Dublin who travel to Dublin to board a flight to London. Thus, only 838,426 &nbsp;of them are residents of Dublin (column 2). Apart from the 850,047 &nbsp;visitors from Dublin, it is estimated that there are 673,259 arrivals from Dublin who are transit passengers (column 4), who stop in London in order to board another outbound flight to go elsewhere. Then there are also 598,804 residents of London returning after visiting Dublin (column 5). So the numbers shown in columns 4 and 5, while they are counted as arrivals in London, are not counted as visitors to London.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE15-BREAKDOWNOFLONDON.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE15-BREAKDOWNOFLONDON.jpg"></a></p> <p>So the Dublin -London example illustrates that with the total arrival number of 2,122,109 in London &nbsp;from &nbsp;Dublin (columns 1 &nbsp;+ &nbsp;4 &nbsp;+ &nbsp;5), &nbsp;only 850,047 (40%) are counted as 'visitors to London,' and of which only 838,426 (39.5%) are 'visitors from Dublin to London.'</p> <p>Similarly, 'visitors to London' from the New York-London connection account for only 31.6% of total arrivals in London from New York, and of which only 28.5% are 'visitors from New York to&nbsp;London.' For Frankfurt, only 38.9% &nbsp;of arrivals in London from Frankfurt can be counted &nbsp;as 'visitors to London,' and only 34.4% can be counted as 'visitors from Frankfurt to London.'</p> <p></p> The Fastest Growing Destination Cities<p>The rankings of the destination cities look very different from the perspective of growth. &nbsp;Table 16 presents the rankings of the world top 20 destination cities in terms of growth rates of visitor numbers.* Rio de Janeiro ranks at the &nbsp;top with an eye-popping growth rate of 28.6%. &nbsp;Tokyo's recovery puts it in second place at 21.5% &nbsp;followed by Quito at 18.8%, &nbsp;Abu Dhabi at 17.9%, &nbsp;Tunis at 17.7% &nbsp;and Dubai at 15.3%. &nbsp;Tunis, in fifth position, provides strong evidence that Tunisia is rapidly returning to normality (as is Cairo at sixteenth rank) after a tumultuous &nbsp;period in 2011. Taipei's growth rate at seventh rank is driven by tourists arriving from mainland China, who can visit Taiwan &nbsp;today &nbsp;through &nbsp;direct transport &nbsp;links after being barred from going there for more than five decades. &nbsp;Istanbul and &nbsp;Beijing share the &nbsp;eighth rank position at 14.7% &nbsp;growth.</p> <p>Ranks one to 11 are all occupied by destination cities located &nbsp;in emerging &nbsp;markets. &nbsp;Apart from Tokyo, Singapore is the highest-ranking destination city in a developed market, in the thirteenth rank, followed by Seoul in the fourteenth. In fact, six of these top 20 fastest growing destination cities are in Middle East and Africa, another six in Asia/Pacific, and five in Latin America. Thus, in the growth of visitor numbers, emerging markets dominate.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE16-WORLDSTOPFASTESTGROWING.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE16-WORLDSTOPFASTESTGROWING.jpg"></a></p> <p>From the perspective of growth of cross-border spending, the rankings are quite different, as presented &nbsp;in Table 17.* Quito is in the top rank with a very impressive growth rate of 26.3%, &nbsp;followed by Bogota in the second rank with 24.8%. Both cities are in the Latin America region. Tokyo is in the third rank with a growth rate of visitor cross-border spending of 24.2%, &nbsp;suggesting that tourists &nbsp;are &nbsp;returning &nbsp;to &nbsp;Japan &nbsp;generally, and Tokyo in particular, after the triple disasters in early 2011 Abu Dhabi and &nbsp;Istanbul are tied at &nbsp;the fourth rank with a growth rate of 20.7%. &nbsp;Taipei is in fifth rank at 20.5%. The growth rate of cross- border spending by visitors in Tunis is 19.8%, putting the city in sixth rank. Beijing follows in the seventh rank with a growth rate of 19.2%.</p> <p>The regional &nbsp;distribution &nbsp;of &nbsp;these &nbsp;top &nbsp;20 fastest growing destination cities is more diverse. Seven of the &nbsp;20 are in Asia/Pacific, from both emerging and developed &nbsp;markets. Four are located in Middle East and Africa, and six are located in Latin America. However, three European cities also make their appearance &nbsp;among the top&nbsp;20. &nbsp;Istanbul &nbsp;is ranked &nbsp;fourth &nbsp;with &nbsp;a &nbsp;20.7% growth rate. Vienna is in eleventh rank, with a robust growth rate of 16.3%. &nbsp;Zurich is in sixteenth rank at 13.9%.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE17-WORDLS-TOP-FASTEST-GROWING-CITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/TABLE17-WORDLS-TOP-FASTEST-GROWING-CITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> Conclusions<p>This 2012 edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index presents a picture of resilient growth in cross-border visitor numbers and their cross-border spending in 132 of the world's most important &nbsp;cities. In all the &nbsp;key regions &nbsp;of the world, visitor numbers &nbsp;and &nbsp;their spending are growing, in spite of the persistent Euro Zone crisis, worries over rising political risks in the &nbsp;Middle East, and lingering concern over the weak recovery in the US. The established leading destination cities like London, Paris, Bangkok, New York, and Singapore &nbsp;continue &nbsp;to &nbsp;occupy top &nbsp;rankings in terms of both visitor numbers and their cross-border spending. But new and dynamic destination cities like Istanbul, Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Shanghai are clearly moving forward with great momentum. From the perspective of growth rates in both visitor numbers and their cross-border spending, destination &nbsp;cities from emerging markets clearly dominate, even though many of them are starting from a very low base. This diversity in geographic distribution and mix of growth drivers behind the rise of destination cities are also creating the best conditions for sustaining their dynamism and success.</p> Appendix A. Methodology for Estimating Air Passenger Arrivals in Destination Cities<p>A total of 132 of the world's most important cities are covered in this index. 42 of them &nbsp;are located in the Asia/Pacific region, 36 in Europe, 19 in Latin America,&nbsp;21 in Middle East and Africa, and 14 in North America.&nbsp;The methodology for estimating air passenger &nbsp;arrivals in each of the destination &nbsp;cities is comprised of the following steps.</p> <p>1. The Total Pipeline of passenger flows is based on overall passenger capacity between international cities: Every month the OAG collects the airline flight schedules for the next 12 months on a global basis. Where previously we only used the data from key months (and the associated 12 month schedule forecasts arising for those months) as the basis of our one-year projections, we now &nbsp;use the &nbsp;full 12 months of flight schedule</p> <p>data to construct our forecasts. Using only non-stop flights we extract for each city to city pair the number of weekly flight frequencies and passenger Capacity.</p> <p>2. Load Factors for each city pair are used to determine the percentage of seats that are actually filled with revenue paying passengers: On any airline flight route, the average percentage of seats filled (i.e. the 'load factor') varies. This information is extremely sensitive for competitive reasons and airlines will only release this data with a one-year lag. Nevertheless, by using the historical load factor on most city-to-city flight routes, we can estimate a proxy for the current and forecasted load factor. We used a weighted &nbsp;average of the historical load factors with heavier emphasis on the most recent years, but airlines will try to maintain a load factor of between 70 to 80% by changing the number of weekly flights or by changing the aircraft type to increase or decrease passenger capacity. As such, for determining the years for which we do not have load factor numbers we apply an increasing improvement of 5% per year on the historical average, starting at 70% and improving to</p> <p>85% over time.<br> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/COVERAGE-OF-DESTINATION-CITIES.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/COVERAGE-OF-DESTINATION-CITIES.jpg"></a></p> <p>3. We can now estimate the total passengers between any given city pair: Using the data above we can now gain a first estimate of the number of passengers departing from one city to another using the equation of Estimated Travelers = Load Factor * Passenger Capacity.</p> <p>4. From total passengers we need to net out passengers who are on the return leg of their travels i.e. on their way home: On any flight there will also be passengers who are returning home after having visited the departure city. For example, in the case of a Caracas to Miami flight there will be US passengers returning back to Miami (after having visited Caracas). We want to net out those passengers. As airlines do not reveal the residency of their passengers there is no way to know at a city to city level what portion of passengers &nbsp;on each flight is returning home. We need to go to the country-country &nbsp;level for this and &nbsp;for that &nbsp;we &nbsp;use &nbsp;UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization) data. They collect the number of annual residents travelling between &nbsp;country pairs. We use this number to create a ratio of Departure Country A to Arrival Country B Ratio = Annual Number of Residents from Country A going &nbsp;to Country B /{Annual Number of Residents &nbsp;from Country A going &nbsp;to Country B + Annual Number of Residents &nbsp;from Country B going to Country A}</p> <p>5. An example using Caracas - Miami: In the case of the Caracas - Miami route, in 2009 there were 507,185&nbsp;Venezuelans &nbsp;in total travelling to the &nbsp;US by air, and&nbsp;76,059 US residents in total travelling to Venezuela by air, implying a ratio of 87% which is the estimated ratio of Venezuelans on any given flight from Venezuela to the US. We use this ratio to net out returning US residents and to obtain the number of Venezuelans travelling from Caracas to Miami as follows: Estimated Venezuelan &nbsp;Resident Travelers &nbsp;from Caracas to Miami = Estimated Travelers * Ratio of Venezuelan Resident Travelers to &nbsp;Total Travelers {US &amp; Venezuela}</p> <p>6. Improving the basic data: Where UNWTO data was not available for a country pair (data available for</p> <p>76% of the country pairs), data was sourced at the national level where available (2% of city pairs) or we used the ratio of the IMF Balance &nbsp;of Payments travel debit&nbsp;accounts to construct a secondary proxy ratio. In this release we have focused on key border regions around the world where the UNWTO cross-country visitor data may give less accurate ratios. In all cases, the general idea was to use overnight visitors (where data was available) instead of overall visitors to construct more accurate departure-arrival ratios of air travelers. This has resulted in some shifts to the flow of travel between these areas (and therefore overall expenditure as well). The border regions include the Mexican-US border, EU countries which share a border, the Singapore-Malaysia border, and the Ukraine-Russia-Belarus-Moldova border areas. Furthermore, in similar fashion, the ratios for the Hong Kong-China-Macau borders have been adjusted using overnight and/or air travel only visits which now allows us to add China resident air arrivals into Hong Kong and Macau via air and vice versa (both were pre- viously excluded).</p> <p>7. For 'hub' cities like Frankfurt, Dubai, Singapore, there are additional complexities in netting out transit passengers: As explained previously, on any given flight there are departing residents from the departure country, returning visitors, and a third group of residuals. The residuals group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, and very high for hub cities. To estimate the proportion of this group, we use: Residuals = Total Estimated Passengers ? Number of Departing Residents ? Number of Returning Visitors. Residuals constitute &nbsp;two main groups: (A) Non-residents (of either the origin or destination &nbsp;country) who from the origin city are visiting the destination city; and (B) residents of the origin country AND non-residents (of either the origin or destination country) who will be transiting through &nbsp;the destination city without visiting it. We are interested &nbsp;in Type A but in order to separate the residuals into its two components &nbsp;we use a relative connectivity ratio 'RCR' that is based on the International &nbsp;Air Connectivity Index (IACI) scores previously created, which is RCRod= &nbsp;( IACIo &nbsp;/ (IACIo+IACId) )2</p> <p>Where</p> <p>RCRo-d: Is the Relative Connectivity Ratio of the</p> <p>Origin City relative to the Destination City</p> <p>IACIo: Is the International Air Connectivity Index of the Origin City</p> <p>IACId: Is the International &nbsp;Air Connectivity &nbsp;Index of the Destination City</p> <p>We separate out Type A by using: A = Residual x RCR &amp; B</p> <p>We then add A {Non-residents &nbsp;(of either the departing or arrival country) who from the departure &nbsp;city are&nbsp;visiting the arrival city} to the number of residents visiting the arrival country {calculated earlier} to obtain the estimated number of travelers who will visit the destination city: Visitors = Origin Country Residents + Non-Residents from other Countries.</p> <p></p> Appendix B. Methodology for Estimating Cross-Border Spending by Arrivals in Destination Cities<p>To estimate the average expenditure of outbound travelers, we again have to look at country to country data. City to city expenditure data is difficult to obtain (partial figures do exist but these are not publicly available). For this we use the United Nations' Trade in Services database (travel component) which does not include transport, i.e. airfares at the paired country level. For country pairs where this data is not available we default to using the &nbsp;average &nbsp;expenditure &nbsp;per &nbsp;traveler in destination countries using IMF's Balance of Payments Travel Credit data and the total number of visitors to the country. In some cases the average expenditure of city pairs can go extremely low when the UNWTO resident departure include large levels of overland cross border travel between &nbsp;neighboring &nbsp;countries &nbsp;and &nbsp;typically involves returning on the same-day. We therefore adjust our ratios for key border regions by using overnight visitors instead of total visits to eliminate the same-day visits issue. In these cases, we have also used expenditures by overnight visitors (instead of total visitor spends) to calculate average inbound expenditures. While we have attempted to 'clean' the data of these same day trips, we have also put in place a default system to 'catch' city pairs with border issues and for which there is inadequate data.&nbsp;As we are dealing with air travel, we assume that a visit involves predominantly &nbsp;&gt;1 night stays and we adjust for this by setting minimum lower range for the average expenditure per traveler at US$500 for bordering arrival countries &nbsp;and &nbsp;US$700 for non-border &nbsp;arrival countries. This lower spending floor was triggered in about 30% of the city-pairs.</p> <p>The formula is as follows: average &nbsp;expenditure of visitors = total amount &nbsp;spent on travel in the destination country by residents &nbsp;of the origin country (ex air tickets) /total &nbsp;number of origin country residents traveling to the destination country.&nbsp;Based on the latest year available for average expenditure per traveler we then project the average expenditure per traveler to 2012 using the nominal growth rate of GDP per Capita provided by the IMF WEO forecast database. Using the estimated number of residents flying from each origin city to each destination city, we can then calculate the estimated expenditure by multiplying in the average expenditure to obtain city to city expenditure &nbsp;estimates. &nbsp;Thus, for each city pair: estimated &nbsp;visitor spend &nbsp;= number of visitors x average expenditure in the destination country</p> <p></p> Glossary<p><b>Visitor:</b>&nbsp;Person who is traveling on a non-stop direct flight to her destination and is not a resident of the destination country. A visitor may make more than one trip, and each trip counts as a new visit. That is, a person who makes two trips to a destination as described above counts as two visitors to that destination. A person on the return leg home does not count as a visitor.</p> <p><b>Visitor Spend:</b>&nbsp;The estimated total amount that visitors spend in the destination city/country. It excludes&nbsp;air ticket expenditure required to get the visitor to the destination city.</p> <p><b>Origin City:</b>&nbsp;The city from which passengers embark on their flight to the destination city. Passengers who count as visitors may be residents of the origin city/country or may be non-residents from other countries (but not the destination city/country)</p> <p><b>Destination City:</b></p> <p>The city where passengers disembark (leave the airport) and are counted &nbsp;as visitors (which only includes non- residents of the destination city/country)</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/APPENDIXBTABLE1.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/APPENDIXBTABLE1.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> About the Author<p>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong, Ph.D.</p> <p>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong &nbsp;is currently HSBC Visiting Professor of International Business at the University of British Columbia, Canada.</p> <p>Yuwa is an economist and business strategist with</p> <p>25 years of experience gained in over thirty countries. He is a Canadian who grew up in Vancouver, British Columbia, and spent the last 20 years working in Europe, Sub-Sahara Africa, the Indian Sub-continent, and Asia/ Pacific. He has served as strategy advisor to over thirty leading multinational companies in the Asia/Pacific region.</p> <p>In 2010, Yuwa was appointed &nbsp;as Global Economic Advisor to MasterCard Worldwide. Prior to this role, he was Economic Advisor to MasterCard in Asia/Pacific, a position he held since 2001. His other appointments are: Advisor at Southern Capital Group, a private equity fund (since 2007); member of the Investment Council of ICICI, India's &nbsp;largest private bank (since 2008); and Adjunct Professor at the School of Management, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (since 2006).</p> <p>Yuwa is a frequent speaker at international conferences and a regular commentator in the broadcast and print media on economic, policy and business issues. He is a published author &nbsp;on consumer markets, economic development, trade, and international relations. He was voted 'Communicator &nbsp;of the Year' in Asia in&nbsp;2006 by the Asia/Pacific Association of Public Relations Professionals. He wrote a regular column in Forbes Asia called 'Asian Angles' in 2005 and 2006.and guest lecturer at the Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago from 2004 -06.&nbsp;As a student of philosophy, political science, and economics, Yuwa studied at Trent University and pursued post-graduate training at the University of British&nbsp;Columbia &nbsp;and &nbsp;Simon &nbsp;Fraser University in &nbsp;Canada, where he received his Ph.D. He also received training, at the post-doctoral level, in health economics, energy and environmental economics, and scenario forecast and planning.</p> <p>He lives with his wife and two cats on Salt Spring Island, off the west coast of Canada, and is an eager apprentice in the fine art of gardening.</p> <p></p> Cross-border travel by air between 132 of the most important cities in the world covered by this index is still growing both in terms of numbers of visitors and their cross-border spending. http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2012/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index2011-12-31T16:00:00.000Z2011-12-31T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard 2014 Global Destination Cities Index Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong and Desmond ChoongIntroduction<p>A hundred years ago, in January 1914, the first commercial flight flew from Tampa to St. Petersburg in Florida, USA. The distance between these two cities is about 23 miles, and it took 20 minutes for the flimsy wooden and propeller-driven aircraft to do it flying at a top speed of 60 miles an hour. At US$400, the airfare was very expensive for the two paid passengers (roughly equivalent to US$9,300 today). But this 20-minute flight ushered in the era of commercial air travel.<sup><a href="#1">1</a></sup> Over the course of the last one hundred years, aircrafts got bigger, faster, safer, and more comfortable; but even more importantly, it also got steadily cheaper to fly. The Tampa to St. Petersburg airfare of US$9,300 could easily pay for a round-the-world plane ticket today with change to spare. Cheaper and faster air travel turned it into a mass phenomenon instead of a passtime for the privileged. The expansion of air travel has been dramatic; in 2013, some three billion air passengers flew on commercial airlines crisscrossing the globe.<sup><a href="#2">2</a></sup></p> <p>Today, air travel is woven into the fabric of our everyday lives. Business travel is a given for many working men and women everywhere. Single-purpose leisure trips such as going somewhere special for a weekend just to shop, or to sample cuisine by a famous chef are routine among the cognoscenti. And as air travel becomes increasingly affordable, it has become a “must do” item in recent years for the mass middle class in emerging markets: many of them going overseas for the first time. As Chart 1 shows, the growth rates of international visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in the 132 destination cities covered by the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index exceeded world real GDP growth over the 2009 to 2014 period (2014 based on forecast estimates). And this is a period when the global economy is still struggling with a fragile and uncertain recovery. There is no better illustration of the momentum of growth of air travel today.</p> <p><b>Chart 1</b> <b>World</b> <b>GDP Growth Versus the Growth of International Visitor Arrivals and Spend by the 132 Destinations</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart1.jpg"></b></p> <p>The impacts of travel on destination cities<sup><a href="#4">3</a></sup> that receive visitors are very significant from the business, social, and cultural perspectives. International visitors’ spending constitute an increasingly important source of business revenue in a destination city, encompassing the hospitality, retail, transport, sports, and cultural industries, among many others. In many instances, it is a major economic engine for employment and income generation for the city in question. Along with the flow of visitors comes the flow of new ideas and experiences that benefits both the visitors and the destination cities, which are just as important as the flow of spending. As a result, the more connected a destination city is to other cities, the more vibrant and dynamic it becomes.</p> <p>MasterCard’s Global Destination Cities Index, now in its fourth year, provides an annual ranking of 132 of the most important destination cities in the world.<sup><a href="#4">4</a></sup> It generates estimates of the total number of international visitors to each of these cities each year, their cross-border spending in these cities, and breakdown of their numbers by feeder cities. The index is therefore a global map of how these 132 cities are connected and the business potential generated in each of them by the inflows of visitor spending.</p> Top 20 Global Destination Cities in 2014<p>The top 20 destination cities in 2014 are shown in Chart 2 and Table 1. London is the world’s top ranked destination city with an estimated 18.69 million international visitors in 2014. It has been a tight race between London and Bangkok for the number one position in the last few years. Bangkok overtook London in 2013 to become the top ranked destination city in the world, but London regained the top rank this year with an 8% growth in visitors, versus an 11% decline in Bangkok due to the Thai political situation.</p> <p><b>CHART 2 Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart2.jpg"><img width="523" height="505" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart2.jpg"></a></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 1 Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table1.jpg"><img width="509" height="368" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table1.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Paris, Singapore, and Dubai followed in third, fourth and fifth ranks respectively. Their respective growth rates, however, diverge significantly. At 1.8%, Paris’ growth is very low, and Singapore’s growth rate is slightly higher at 3.1%. But they are both eclipsed by Dubai’s 7.5%. If their current growth rates are to continue, then Dubai would overtake both Paris and Singapore within five years. Other major changes in the ranking are: Amsterdam overtook Milan to move up from 13th to 12th rank, and Shanghai overtook Vienna.</p> <p>Chart 3 and Table 2 below show the rankings for the top 20 global destinations in terms of international visitor spending. London is the top ranked city in terms of visitor spending, which is estimated to be US$19.27 billion in 2014. London retained its top ranked position in visitor spending in 2013 despite losing the top ranked position to Bangkok in visitor numbers last year. New York and Paris followed in second and third respectively. Singapore moves above Bangkok to claim fourth. Madrid moved up from 16th, displacing Sydney, while San Francisco moved up to 19th, displacing Munich.</p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific<p>The top 10 destination cities in Asia/Pacific are shown in Chart 6 and Table 3. Bangkok, ranked second in the world, is in the top position in the region with 16.42 million international visitors. The top five cities of Bangkok, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, and Seoul remain unchanged from 2013. Tokyo, Mumbai and Beijing round-off the top ten list.</p> <p><b>CHART 6 Asia/Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><b><img width="559" height="256" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart6.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 3 Asia Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table3.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="507" height="218" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table3.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The top 10 destination cities in Asia/Pacific by international visitor spending are presented in Chart 7 and Table 4. Singapore with US$14.3 billion displaces Bangkok at US$13.0 billion to rank first. The placements of the other eight Asia Pacific cities in the top ten destinations are unchanged from last year.</p> <p><b>CHART 7 Asia/Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2014)</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart7.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 4 Asia/Pacific Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table4.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="505" height="208" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table4.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The dynamism of a destination city is closely affected by its feeder cities – the cities where its international visitors come from or via which they are transiting through.<sup><a href="#7">7</a></sup> If a destination city is connected with a network of fast growing feeder cities where outbound travel is taking off, then it is well positioned to benefit from such growth. On the other hand, if certain feeder cities are slowing down in economic growth with household income stagnating, then the associated destination cities will likely suffer unless they are able to tap into other growing feeder cities. Mapping a destination city’s key feeder cities therefore generates valuable insights on a destination city’s growth potential as well as challenges ahead. The top 5 feeder cities for each of the three top ranked destination cities in each region are provided here to illustrate the interconnected of these cities.</p> <p>The top 5 feeder cities for Bangkok are shown in Chart 8. Singapore is the biggest feeder city for Bangkok. While also serving as an origin city for visitors to Bangkok, Singapore is also a major gateway hub for other countries to reach Bangkok. This is followed by Tokyo, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, and Shanghai. Despite all five feeder cities being from Asia/Pacific, 42% of visitors to Bangkok are from outside of the region. In fact, Bangkok has a very diversified network of feeder cities and origin countries, which explains Bangkok’s well known resilience as a tourism hotspot. However, in 2014 four of the top five feeder cities show a drop in visitor numbers to Bangkok due to its ongoing political turmoil, a key reason why Bangkok lost the world’s top rank position to London in 2014.</p> <p><b>CHART 8 Bangkok: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart8.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="506" height="349" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart8.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The top five feeder cities for Singapore, ranked second as a destination city in Asia/Pacific and fourth in the world, are shown in Chart 9. They are Jakarta, Tokyo, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Manila, and all are in Asia/Pacific. This is consistent with the fact that 82% of visitors to Singapore are from the region.</p> <p><b>CHART 9 Singapore: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart9.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="354" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart9.jpg"></a></p> <p>The top 5 feeder cities for Kuala Lumpur, the third ranked destination city in Asia/Pacific, are shown in Chart 10. They are Singapore, Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila and Melbourne. With the exception of Singapore, they show very strong growth in visitor numbers to Kuala Lumpur, with Melbourne being the highest with an impressive growth rate of 34.7%. About 60% of visitors to Kuala Lumpur are from the Asia/Pacific region.</p> <p><b>CHART 10 Kuala Lumpur: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart10.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="360" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart10.jpg"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Europe<p>Europe’s top ten destination cities by international visitors are presented in Chart 11 and Table 5. London, being top ranked in the world, is naturally also leads the European list. Paris, Istanbul and Barcelona are in second, third and fourth position respectively, unchanged from last year. Amsterdam moves to fifth, displacing Milan.</p> <p><b>CHART 11 Europe Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><b><img width="561" height="255" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart11.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 5 Europe Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="506" height="209" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table5.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Chart 12 and Table 6 show the top 10 destination cities by international visitor spending in Europe. The top four positions—held by London, Paris, Barcelona and Istanbul—are unchanged from last year. Vienna moves up two places to eighth, displacing Milan and Berlin which both move down to ninth and tenth respectively.</p> <p><b>CHART 12 Europe Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart12.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 6 Europe Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table6.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="505" height="209" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table6.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Details of London’s top five feeder cities, New York, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Stockholm, and Dublin, are summarized in Chart 13. Visitor numbers from New York are growing strongly, contrasting the dropping numbers from Stockholm and Dublin. The majority of international visitors to London are from Europe accounting for 67 percent of the total. The strong growth of London international visitor arrivals allowed it to quickly reclaim the number one position from Bangkok which suffers from a drop in visitor numbers due to unstable political conditions.</p> <p><b>CHART 13 London: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><img width="502" height="331" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart13.jpg"></b></p> <p>Paris, in the second rank in Europe and third in the world, also has New York as its biggest feeder city, followed by London, Amsterdam, Rome, and Tokyo. Unlike London, however, a majority of its visitors, 53 percent, are from outside of Europe.</p> <p><b>CHART 14 Paris: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart14.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="505" height="336" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart14.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Istanbul, one of the most dynamic and fast growing destination cities, is ranked third in Europe and seventh in the world. Its top five feeder cities are all in Europe, as shown in Chart 15, and they are all showing double digit growth in visitor numbers to Istanbul. Overall, 55 percent of visitors to Istanbul come from outside of the European region. </p> <p><b>CHART 15 Istanbul: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart15.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="502" height="332" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart15.jpg"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Latin America<p>Latin America’s top ten destination cities are shown in Chart 16 and Table 7. Lima is the top ranked destination city in Latin America with 5.11 million international visitors in 2014. Mexico City is ranked second, while Sao Paulo is ranked third. Punta Cana, which replaces Santiago in this edition, is in fourth, followed by Buenos Aires. Caracas falls out of the top ten to 11th place with the entry of Punta Cana.</p> <p><b>CHART 16 Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart16.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 7 Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)<br> </b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table7.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="503" height="218" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table7.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>As shown in Chart 17 and Table 8 below, Punta Cana is the regional top rank in international visitor spending at US$2.4 billion, followed by Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires. Bogota moves ahead of Rio de Janeiro to claim sixth rank. With the addition of Punta Cana, Caracas is displaced out of the top ten and holds the 11th rank.</p> <p><b>CHART 17 Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart17.jpg"><br> </b></p> <p><b>TABLE 8 Latin America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2014)<br> </b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table8.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="219" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table8.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Details of the top five feeder cities for Lima are summarized in Chart 18. Four of the five feeder cities are within the Latin American region: Santiago, Buenos Aires, Bogota, and Mexico City. Miami in the US is Lima’s second biggest feeder city. Overall, 56 percent of Lima’s visitors come from outside of the region.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 18 Lima: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b><br> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart18.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="340" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart18.jpg"></a><br> </p> <p>The top five feeder cities for Mexico City are all in the US: New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Houston, and Chicago. Visitors from New York and Chicago are growing strongly, in sharp contrast with declining numbers from Los Angeles, Miami, and Houston. Overall, 54 percent of visitors come from outside of the region.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 19 Mexico City: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b><br> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart19.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="342" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart19.jpg"></a><br> </p> <p>Sao Paulo’s top five feeder cities represent four countries: Argentina, USA, Chile, and Germany. These feeder cities are Buenos Aires, Miami, New York, Santiago, and Frankfurt. This diversity is reflected in the fact that two-thirds of international visitors to Sao Paulo come from outside the Latin American region.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 20 Sao Paolo: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b><br> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart20.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="338" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart20.jpg"></a><br> </p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Middle East and Africa<p>Middle East and Africa’s top 10 destination cities are shown in Chart 21 and Table 9. Dubai is in the top rank in the region with 11.95 million international overnight visitors, followed by Riyadh and Johannesburg. In fourth place is Abu Dhabi, another city from the United Arab Emirates followed by Cape Town in fifth place.</p> <p><b>CHART 21 Middle East and Africa Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart21.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 9 Middle East &amp; Africa Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table9.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="509" height="210" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table9.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The regional top 10 ranking by international visitor spending are presented in Chart 22 and Table 10. While Dubai and Riyadh are in the first and second ranks respectively, Dubai is in a league of its own with US$10.9 billion of visitor spending, more than double Riyadh’s US$4.1 billion. Due to the political unrest, Cairo is the only city with negative growth in the top 10 (of both international visitors and spending) in 2014.</p> <p><b>CHART 22 Middle East and Africa Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart22.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 10 Middle East &amp; Africa Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table10.jpg"><img width="505" height="208" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table10.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Details of Dubai’s top five feeder cities are summarized in Chart 23, and they are London, Riyadh, Kuwait, Jeddah, and Paris. While growth rates of visitors from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are either dropping or barely growing, growth rates of visitors from London and Paris are growing strongly in double digits. This is consistent with the trend that international visitors from outside of the region is becoming more important for Dubai, currently accounting for 66 percent of the total.</p> <p><b>CHART 23 Dubai: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart23.jpg"><img width="502" height="335" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart23.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Riyadh’s top five feeder cities are Cairo, Dubai, Doha, Amman, and Mumbai; and 64 percent of its visitors came from within the region.</p> <p><b>CHART 24 Riyadh: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart24.jpg"><img width="518" height="347" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart24.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Johannesburg’s top five feeder cities are London, Frankfurt, Harare, Maputo, and Paris, as shown in Chart 25. While visitor numbers from London and Frankfurt are growing, the others are dropping. An overwhelming majority (77 percent) of international visitors to Johannesburg came from inside of the region.</p> <p><b>CHART 25 Johannesburg: Top 5 Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)<a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart25.jpg"><img width="509" height="341" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart25.jpg"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in North America<p>The top 10 destination cities in North America are presented in Chart 26 and Table 11. New York is the top ranked in the region and ranked sixth in the world, with 11.81 million international visitors. It is followed by Los Angeles, Miami, Toronto and San Francisco, which are unchanged from their last year’s ranking.</p> <p><b>CHART 26 North America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart26.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 11 North America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)<br> </b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table11.jpg"><img width="504" height="208" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table11.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>As shown by Chart 27 and Table 12 below, New York is also top ranked in the region in international visitor spending at US$18.6 billion (and ranked second in the world). This is followed by Los Angeles, Miami, Toronto and San Francisco.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 27 North America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend</b></p> <p><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart27.jpg"></b></p> <p><b>TABLE 12 North America Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors Spend (2014)<br> </b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table12.jpg"><img width="502" height="205" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/table12.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The top five feeder cities of New York are shown in Chart 28. They are London, Sao Paulo, Toronto, Paris, and Beijing, a very diverse mix. Visitors from Beijing are growing especially strongly at 17.3 percent. The fact that 90 percent of visitors to New York came from outside of North America underscores its prowess as a global city.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 28 New York: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart28.jpg"><img width="496" height="328" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart28.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Los Angeles’ top five feeder cities are Vancouver, London, Seoul, Paris and Taipei, also a very diverse mix, as seen in Chart 29. Similar to New York, 83 percent of visitors to Los Angeles came from outside of the region.</p> <p><b>CHART 29 Los Angeles: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart29.jpg"><img width="509" height="338" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart29.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>Chart 30 shows the top five feeder cities of Miami. Four out of the five are in Latin America, illustrating the strong connection between Miami and cities in Latin America. In fact, 94 percent of visitors to Miami came from outside of North America, and most are from Latin America.</p> <p><b>CHART 30 Miami: Top Five Feeder Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart30.jpg"><img width="511" height="343" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart30.jpg"></a></b></p> The Air Hub Index: Power of Connectivity<p>The flows of visitors and their spending from feeder cities to destination cities are in essence a form of service trade. Unlike trade in goods, however, the buyers (visitors) physically move from where they live to where the sellers live, the destination cities. Thus, in cross-border air travel, the connection between demand (buyers) and supply (sellers) is mediated by the logistics of air connectivity. Very often when a new airport is opened or an old one upgraded and when new flight connections are inaugurated; the volume of air travel increases correspondingly. So expanding or shrinking air connectivity will have very material impacts on the growth and decline of destination cities, and can be construed as a key leading indicator.</p> <p>The “air hub index” is designed to measure the breadth of a destination city’s connectivity by air with the rest of world, as well as the strength of each of the connections. The index then assigns a value to each destination city on the basis of the number of international flight connections that it has (weighed differently between inter-region versus intra-region flights) and the frequencies of these flights.<sup><a href="#8">8</a></sup> Chart 31 presents the ranking and index scores of the top 50 destination cities. It is obvious that there is a lot of overlap between the ranking in destination cities by international visitors and by air hub scores; but there are also significant differences suggesting a dynamic and changing future. Of the global top 10 destination cities, only seven are in the top 10 by the air hub index scores. Indeed, the world’s second ranked destination city, Bangkok, is ranked 11th in the air hub index, whereas Moscow which ranks 48th globally as a destination city is ranked tenth in the air hub index.</p> <p><b>CHART 31 Global Leading Air Hubs Index Top 50 Destinations by Index Score</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart31.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="504" height="336" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart31.jpg"></a></b></p> <p>The air hub index offers yet another perspective on change when the growth rates in index scores are compared between the destination cities. Chart 32 summarizes details of the top 10 fastest growing destination cities by air hub index scores. Some of them, like Bangkok, Dubai, Singapore, Istanbul, and Hong Kong, are already among the top ranked destination cities, but others like Moscow, Shanghai, and Abu Dhabi, are not yet there, but they could be on their way as they are actively growing their flight connectivity as suggested by the rapid increase in their air hub scores.</p> <p><b>CHART 32 Top 10 Fastest Growing Destination Cities by Air Hubs Index (by 2010-2014 change in index points score)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart32.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="503" height="203" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/chart32.jpg"></a></b></p> Conclusions<p>The continuing and robust growth of air travel and cross-border spending as reported by MasterCard’s Global Destination Cities Index, which consistently exceeded world GDP growth over the 2009 and 2014 period, suggest a very powerful trend in the making. It appears to be a multidimensional phenomenon driven by a combination of rapid growth of mass tourism due to the expanding middle class in many emerging markets, rising needs for business travel in spite of the internet and the digital world, and proliferating innovations in luxury travel. It is a trend that is likely to persist in the foreseeable future.</p> <p>The picture is an equally dynamic one when it comes to the comparative performance of the destination cities as reflected by the ranking in the Index. At the very top is the close race between London and Bangkok, with London reclaiming the top rank this year after losing it to Bangkok last year. The fact of the matter is that many destination cities moved up in the ranks in the last five years, overtaking others, regardless whether they rank high or low in the Global Destination Cities Index. Not surprisingly many of the “upwardly mobile” destination cities are in emerging markets because of their growing air connectivity and fast improving infrastructure. In fact, using the growth rates in the Air Hub Index as the leading indicator, it would appear that seven out of the ten fastest growing “air hubs” are in emerging markets.</p> <p>While destination cities in emerging markets may be growing faster in relative terms, the absolute size of the pie of air travel is also expanding fast. So it is not a zero sum game where destination cities in emerging markets are gaining at the expanse of those in the developed markets. A more accurate characterization is that they seem to grow synergistically, which explains why this is such a robust and resilient trend.</p> Appendix A: Methodology<p>The 132 Destination Cities of the index.</p> <p><b>Asia/Pacific (42 cities):</b><br> Ahmedabad, Almaty, Bangkok, Beijing Bengaluru, Chengdu, Chennai, Coimbatore, Colombo, Dalian, Delhi, Dhaka , Guangzhou , Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Islamabad, Jakarta, Karachi, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, Manila, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nanjing, Osaka, Pune, Qingdao, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei, Tianjin, Tokyo, Xi an, Xiamen<b></b></p> <p><b>Europe (36 cities):</b><br> Amsterdam, Ankara, Athens, Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Copenhagen, Dublin, Dusseldorf, Edinburgh, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kiev, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Minsk, Moscow, Munich, Novosibirsk, Paris, Prague, Rome, Sofia, St Petersburg, Stockholm, Vienna, Vladivostok, Warsaw, Yekaterinburg, Zurich</p> <p><b>Latin America (19 cities)</b><br> Belo Horizonte, Bogota, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Cordoba, Curitiba, Lima, Medellin, Mexico City, Monterrey, Montevideo, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, San Jose, Punta Cana*, Santo Domingo, Sao Paulo</p> <p>*Punta Cana replaces Santiago</p> <p><b>Middle East and Africa (21 cities)</b><br> Abu Dhabi, Accra, Amman, Beira, Beirut, Cairo, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dakar, Damascus, Dubai, Durban, Kampala, Johannesburg, Lagos, Maputo, Nairobi, Riyadh, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Tunis</p> <p><b>North America (14 cities)</b><br> Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Montreal, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Toronto, Vancouver, Washington</p> Global Air Hub Index<p>It is an index that seeks to measure the breadth of a city’s international connectivity as well as the strength of each connection. Using Amsterdam as an example, for each city pair with Amsterdam as the departure node, we calculate the connectivity score for the city pair as:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/globalairhub.jpg"></p> <p>where <b>Weekly Flight Frequency: </b>is the number of flights per week departing from Amsterdam to a particular city. This is the main driver of the connectivity score and it is sourced from OAG Flight Schedules Data. Airlines will also provide their flight schedules for one year ahead, which is how we obtained the weekly flight frequencies for 2014. While the number of cities that Amsterdam is connected to determines Amsterdam’s raw connectivity, the strength of each connection is measured by the weekly flight frequency and weighted by whether or not the connection is Inter-regional or Intra-regional.<b></b></p> <p><b>Inter/Intra-Regional Multiplier: </b>International Destinations from Amsterdam that are Inter-regional (i.e. outside of Western Europe in the case of Amsterdam) are weighted at twice (i.e. x 2) that of International Destinations within the same region as Amsterdam (i.e. intra-regional, within Western Europe).<b></b></p> <p><b>City Pair with Max Weekly Flight Frequencies: </b>This number is used to normalize the raw connectivity scores. It has absolutely no effect on the relative scores between cities and is used only for ease of presentation when viewing the data.</p> <p>Every Amsterdam – XXX city pair is thus given its own connectivity value. We add them up to get a connectivity value for Amsterdam itself. We now do this for every one of the 132 cities. Once we have the connectivity scores for all 132 cities, we perform a final normalization so that the scores can be presented out of a maximum of 100 (Index format). The divisor for this is the highest raw 2009 score (in this case London’s raw connectivity score in 2009).<b><u></u></b></p> <p><b><u>Estimation of Overnight Visitors</u></b></p> <p>City level international overnight arrivals are those who actually stay in the destination city, at least for one night. In order words we only count cases where the disembarkation city is also an overnight destination city. This is opposed to cases where the disembarkation city is merely a transit point while the destination city which maybe some other city in the same country.</p> <p>The sources for city level overnight arrivals by foreign visitors are typically the National Statistics Boards of the relevant countries or their Tourism Boards. The indicators for 122 out of the 132 cities were directly sourced for or estimated from official data. The other 10 cities were estimated using the Airflow Model (see below).</p> <p>Total overnight foreign visitor official data was available directly for estimation for 70 cities. Where this was not available, we sourced for:</p> <ul> <li>Foreign overnight arrivals by air at the city level (12 cities)</li> <li>Foreign overnight arrivals at paid accommodations at the city level (40 cities)</li> </ul> <p>In previous editions of this report Dubai international overnight visitors were at the paid accommodation level only; in this edition however, Dubai Tourism and Commerce Marketing has kindly provided us with estimates of international overnight visitors who stay with friends and family and as such we have revised our data to include this.</p> <p>In cases where official data or estimates derived from official data do not cover the most recent year but do cover earlier years, we have projected from the years where data was available using the growth rates from the Airflow model. For all cases forecasts for 2014 are projected using growth rates from the Airflow model.</p> <p><b><u>The Airflow Model</u></b></p> <p>Every month the OAG collects the airline flight schedules for the next 12 months on a global basis. Using only non-stop flights we extract for each city to city pair the number of:</p> <ul> <li>Weekly flight frequencies</li> <li>Passenger capacity</li> </ul> <p>On any airline flight route, the average % of seats filled (i.e. called the “load factor”) varies. This information is extremely sensitive for competitive reasons and airlines will only release this data with a 1 year lag. Nevertheless, by using the historical load factor on most city to city flight routes, we can estimate a proxy for the current and forecasted load factor. We used a weighted average of the historical load factors with heavier emphasis on the most recent years which ranges from 30% to 100%, but airlines will try to maintain a load factor of between 70 to 80% by changing the number of weekly flights or by changing the aircraft type to increase or decrease passenger capacity. As such, for determining the years for which we do not have load factor numbers we apply an increasing improvement of 5% per year on the historical average, starting at 70% and improving to 85% over time.</p> <p>Using the data above a first estimate of the number of passengers departing from one city to another can be made using:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/airflowmodel.jpg"></p> <p>Now on any flight there will also be passengers who are returning home after having visited the departure city. For example, in the case of a Caracas to Miami flight there will be US passengers returning back to Miami (after having visited Caracas). We want to net out those passengers. As airlines do not reveal the residency of their passengers there is no way to know at a city to city level what portion of passengers on each flight is returning home. We need to go to the country-country level for this and for that we use UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization) data. They collect the number of annual residents traveling between country pairs and we use these numbers to create a ratio of:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/airflowmodel2.jpg"></p> <p>For example, in the case of the Caracas – Miami route, in 2009 there were 340,403 Venezuelans in total traveling to the US, and 43,752 US residents in total traveling to Venezuela via the Miami – Caracas route implying a ratio of 88.6% which is the estimated ratio of Venezuelans on any given flight from Venezuela to the US. We use this ratio to net out returning US residents and to obtain the number of Venezuelans traveling from Caracas to Miami as follows:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/airflowmodel3.jpg"></p> <p>Where UNWTO data was not available for a country pair (data available for 76% of the country pairs), data was sourced at the National level where available (2% of city pairs) or we used the ratio of the IMF Balance of Payments travel debit accounts to construct a secondary proxy ratio. In this release we have focused on key border regions around the world where the UNWTO cross-country visitor data may give less accurate ratios. In all cases, the general idea was to use overnight visitors (where data was available) instead of overall visitors to construct more accurate departure-arrival ratios of air travelers. This has resulted in some shifts to the flow of travel between these areas (and therefore overall expenditure as well). The border regions include the Mexican-US border, EU countries which share a border, the Singapore-Malaysia border, and the Ukraine-Russia-Belarus-Moldova border areas.</p> <p>In this release, out of the 132 cities, 10 were estimated using the airflow model as we were unable source for official statistics. They are:<b></b></p> <ul> <li><b>Eastern Europe: </b>Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Kiev, Minsk, Almaty </li> <li><b>Asia: </b>Dhaka, Tehran </li> <li><b>Africa: </b>Dakar, Lagos, Accra</li> </ul> <p>To estimate the number of visitors to each of the destination cities, the following steps are followed.</p> <p>(i)&nbsp; As explained previously, on any given flight there are departing residents from the departure country, returning visitors, and a third group of residuals. The residuals group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, and very high for hub cities. To estimate the proportion of this group, we use: Residuals = Total Estimated Passengers – Number of Depart­ing Residents – Number of Returning Visitors</p> <p>(ii) Residuals constitute 2 main groups: (A) non-residents (of either the origin or destination country) who from the origin city are visiting the destination city, and residents of the origin country, and (B) non-residents (of either the origin or destination country) who will be transiting through the destination city without visiting it. We are interested in (a) but in order to separate the residuals into its 2 components we use a relative connectivity ratio “RCR” that is based on the International Air Connectivity Index (IACI) scores previously created.</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/airflowmodel4.jpg"></p> <p>We then separate out (A) using <br> A = Residual x RCR &amp; B = Residual - A<br> We then add A {Non-residents (of either the departing or arrival country) who from the departure city are visiting the arrival city} to the number of residents visiting the arrival country {calculated earlier} to obtain the estimated number of travelers who will visit the destination city, which is equal to:<b><u></u></b></p> <p><b><u><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/airflowmodel5.jpg"></u></b></p> <p><b><u>Estimation of Visitors’ Cross-Border Expenditure</u></b></p> <p>In most cases the estimated visitor spend at the city level was directly sourced from official statistics, or estimated using data from national international visitor surveys (49 cities). Where survey level data at the city level was unavailable but available at the national level, we used the later in terms of the national average expenditure per overnight tourist which we multiplied with city level overnight visitors to obtain total expenditure (44 cities). Where survey data was not available at either the city or country level, we calculated and used the average expenditure in destination countries using IMF Balance of Payments Travel Credit data (adjusted down to include only overnight visitors as the Balance of Payments data includes both excursionist and overnight visitors) and the total number of overnight visitors to the country (36 cities). For Kiev, Singapore and Paris we looked at country to country data to estimate the average expenditure of outbound travelers. City to city expenditure data is difficult to obtain (partial figures do exist but these are not publicly available). For this we use the United Nations’ Trade in Services database (travel component) which does not include transport, i.e. Airfares at the paired country level. For country pairs where this data is not available we default to using.</p> <p>The formula is as follows:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/expenditure.jpg"></p> <p>Based on the latest year available for average expenditure per traveler we then project the average expenditure per traveler using the nominal growth rate of GDP per Capita provided by the IMF WEO forecast database. Using the estimated number of residents flying from each departure city to each destination city, we can then calculate the estimated expenditure by multiplying in the average expenditure to obtain city to city expenditure estimates. That is for each city pair:</p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/spend.jpg"></p> Data Sources<p><img width="510" height="356" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2014/GlobalDestinationIndex/datasources.jpg"></p> Glossary<p><b>Visitor: </b>Person who is traveling on a non-stop direct flight to her destination and is not a resident of the destination country. A visitor may make more than one trip, and each trip counts as a new visit. That is, a person who makes 2 trips to a destination as described above counts as 2 visitors to that destination. A person on the return leg home does not count as a visitor.</p> <p><b>Visitor Spend: </b>The estimated total amount that visitors spend in the destination city/ country. It excludes air ticket expenditure required to get the visitor to the destination city.<b></b></p> <p><b>Origin City: </b><b></b>The city from which visitors embark on their flight to the destination city. Passengers who count as visitors may be residents of the origin city/country or may be non-residents from other countries (but not the destination city/country).</p> <p><b>Destination City: </b>The city where passengers disembark (leave the airport) and are counted as visitors (which only includes non-residents of the destination city/country).</p> <p><b>Feeder City/Country: </b><b></b>Sometimes visitors &amp; visitor spend is described at the country or city level interchangeably. For example, visitors from Frankfurt to London are described as non-residents &amp; residents of the origin country visiting the destination country via London. By residents of the feeder country we mean German residents inclusive of residents of Frankfurt. This is because residents from other parts of Germany may have domestically flown or driven to Frankfurt to take their flight to London together with residents of the Frankfurt urban area. Non-residents of the feeder country include for example Singaporeans who are on their way to London who have either visited Frankfurt before going to London or who are simply transiting through Frankfurt on their way to London. The point is that the feeder city is the most recent place from which travelers embarked before arriving at their destination which is a constraint of using only non-stop flights. Finally, visiting the destination country via London, implies that visitors may disembark in London to visit the city but they could also go from London to visit other parts of the country via a domestic flight.</p> About the Authors<p><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></p> <p>Yuwa Hedrick-Wong is currently Chief Economist, MasterCard Center for Inclusive Growth, and Global Economic Advisor, MasterCard. He is also HSBC Professor of International Business at the University of British Columbia, Canada.</p> <p>He is an economist with 25 years of experience gained in over thirty countries. He is a Canadian who grew up in Vancouver and has spent the last 20 years working in Europe, Sub-Sahara Africa, and Asia Pacific. He has served as advisor to over fifty leading multinational companies.</p> <p>He is a published author on consumer markets, economic development, trade and international relations. Yuwa studied philosophy, political science, and economics at Trent University, and pursued post-graduate training at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University in Canada, where he received his Ph.D.</p> <p>He lives on Salt Spring Island, off the west coast of Canada, with his wife and their cat; and is an enthusiastic apprentice in the fine art of gardening.</p> <p><b>Desmond Choong</b></p> <p>Desmond Choong is a Research Economist with the MasterCard Center for Inclusive Growth. In this capacity, he sources, reviews and develops research aimed at advancing the Center’s goals.</p> <p>Based in Singapore, he is an economist and business analyst with extensive experience in the Asia/Pacific region and a focus on index modeling, market sizing and macroeconomic analysis. He has spent thirteen years consulting for multinational companies across a wide range of industries, including finance, resources, and travel and hospitality.</p> <p>Desmond has taught International Trade at Boston University and holds a B.A. in English/Economics from Boston College and a M.A. in Political Economics from Boston University.</p> The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2013. Public data are used in deriving the international visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2014/mastercard-2014-global-destination-cities-index2014-07-08T16:00:00.000Z2014-07-08T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index 2015 About CrescentRating<p>CrescentRating is the world’s leading authority on Halal-friendly travel. The company uses insights, industry intelligence, lifestyle, behaviour and research on the needs of the Muslim traveller to deliver authoritative guidance on all aspects of Halal-friendly travel to organizations across the globe.</p> <p>Formed in 2008, CrescentRating services are now used by every tier of the tourism industry globally, from government bodies and tourism agencies to hospitality service providers, to inform how they can meet and serve the needs of the Muslim traveller.</p> <p>CrescentRating’s services include rating &amp; accreditation, research &amp; consultancy, workshops &amp; training, ranking &amp; indices, event support/partnerships and content provision. HalalTrip is a sister brand of CrescentRating.</p> <p></p> About MasterCard<p>MasterCard is a technology company in the global payments industry. MasterCard operates the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories.</p> <p>MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities - such as shopping, traveling, running a business, and managing finances - easier, more secure, and more efficient for everyone.</p> Muslim Travel Market<p>The Muslim population is growing rapidly and is expected to become 26.5% of the world’s population by 2030.</p> <p>The majority of the Muslim population comes from some of the fastest growing economies such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and the Gulf countries. Muslims are now becoming an important consumer market for the entire world. They will become an increasingly important segment for businesses across all sectors.</p> <p>Faith is increasingly influencing their purchasing decisions. They are searching for products and services that take into account their faith based needs. This has been illustrated over the last decade by the accelerated growth of Halal food, Islamic banking and lifestyle sectors.</p> <p>The typical Muslim consumer is now younger, educated and with a larger disposable income which has precipitated an increased propensity to travel. This means travel and hospitality, and its various sub-sectors, is now one of the biggest markets within the Muslim consumer space.</p> <p>This study revealed that in 2014 this segment was worth $145 billion, with 108 million Muslim travellers representing 10% of the entire travel economy. This is forecast to grow to 150 million visitors by 2020 and 11% of the market with an expenditure projected to grow to $200 billion. Muslim travel will continue to be one of the fastest growing travel sectors in the world.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_1.png"><img width="555" height="385" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_1.png"><br> </a></p> <p>Given the significance of this segment, MasterCard and CrescentRating have come together to develop and maintain the Global Muslim Travel Index, which will provide travellers, destinations and travel services, as well as investors, comprehensive benchmarks across a number of important criteria, to track the health and the growth of this travel segment.</p> <p>The MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2015 looks at in-depth data covering 100 destinations, creating an overall index.</p> <p></p> MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) Overview<p>In 2011 CrescentRating published the first ever research into the Halal travel market with the release of the Top 10 Muslim friendly holiday destinations.</p> <p>A year later this report was enhanced to include new data to distinguish between destinations with a large Muslim population (OIC member states) and others. The 2012 report included rankings of the Top 10 Muslim friendly OIC holiday destinations and Top 10 Muslim friendly non-OIC holiday destinations.</p> <p>In 2013 the Index further evolved to cover 50 destinations across the world with each rated out of a score of 10. This list was expanded to cover 60 destinations in 2014.</p> <p>The MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) is a natural progression of the previous research released by CrescentRating during the last four years. This partnership means the GMTI 2015 will be the most comprehensive research released on this fast growing travel segment.</p> <p>For those in the tourism industry, the GMTI will be an invaluable tool in understanding just how Muslim travel is impacting the overall travel market.</p> <p>It will provide every stakeholder in the travel and hospitality sector, including travellers, tourism boards, economists, travel services providers, stakeholders, investors and industry specialists with comprehensive benchmarks across a number of important criteria to track the health and the growth of this travel segment.</p> <p>The GMTI 2015 studies an enhanced set of metrics and deeper data compared with the rankings and reports released over the last four years by CrescentRating.</p> <p>It will help destinations and those responsible for tourism to better benchmark the services they offer and use the detailed analysis in the report to improve processes and how they attract the Muslim traveller. In addition, travellers will have the information to make educated choices when planning trips.</p> <p>The GMTI 2015 looks at nine criteria in three areas that contribute to the overall index score for each destination. Each of the criteria is elaborated upon further into this report.</p> <p><b>Suitability as a holiday destination, family friendliness and safety </b><br> 1. Muslim visitor arrivals<br> 2. Family friendly holiday destination<br> 3. Safe travel environment<br> <br> <b>Muslim friendly services and facilities available at the destination </b><br> 4. Dining options and Halal assurance<br> 5. Ease of access to prayer places<br> 6. Airport services and facilities<br> 7. Accommodation options<br> <br> <b>Halal awareness and reach out to Muslims by the destination </b><br> 8. Muslim travel market awareness and reach out<br> 9. Ease of communication<br> <br> <a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_2.png" target="_blank"><img width="555" height="564" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_2.png"></a><br> <br> The top 100 destinations ranked in this report are taken from 110 studied, including 29 OIC destinations and 81 non-OIC destinations. These hundred destinations represent more than 95% of Muslim visitor arrivals in 2014.<br> <br> <a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_3.png" target="_blank"><img width="579" height="809" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_3.png"></a> </p> Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2015 Results<p>Against the backdrop of a new set of criteria Malaysia topped the 2015 Index with a score of 83.8. It was followed by Turkey at 73.8 and UAE at 72.1.</p> <p>It is the fifth year in a row that Malaysia has ranked number one having topped the previous rankings produced by CrescentRating since 2011.</p> <p>Although OIC destinations have a distinct advantage due to having Muslim friendly facilities&nbsp; and services by default, there is a still a requirement to create a clear and coherent strategy across every level to fully maximise their attractiveness to Muslim tourists. It is a commitment that Malaysia, and to an extent Turkey, has embraced wholeheartedly over the last decade. In 2014 Malaysia and Turkey attracted 13% of total Muslim travellers. Other destinations in the top 10 also have the potential to target this segment to increase their visitor arrivals.</p> <p>Non-OIC destinations have been much more proactive in looking at this segment and are developing services and capabilities specifically to attract this audience. Commendable mentions must be given to Asian destinations such as Japan and Taiwan who have fully embraced this growing sector by dedicating resources and influencing tourism policy.</p> <p>Given that many of these destinations already have excellent tourism products and infrastructure, for some it will only require small adaptations and adjustments to fully cater for the needs of Muslims.</p> <p>Singapore comes out on top for the non-OIC destinations. Over the last few years it has invested in attracting this sector by adapting its offering to the Muslim tourist. It currently boasts some of the best Halal food environments in non-OIC destinations, even when compared against OIC destinations. In addition, it has invested and embraced processes that provide greater transparency to the sector. An example is the well-established and dedicated Halal certification body.</p> <p>From a regional perspective, Asian destinations lead with an average GMTI score of 53.98.<br> <br> <b>The top 10 OIC destinations in the GMTI 2015 are:</b></p> <p><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_4.png"><br> <br> <b>The top 10 non-OIC destinations in the GMTI 2015 are:</b><br> <br> <img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_13.png"></p> The Primary Index – GMTI40<p>GMTI40 will track the average score of the top 20 OIC and top 20 non-OIC destinations to form a key index to monitor the performance of the Muslim travel segment throughout the year. It is envisaged that the GMTI40 will be updated quarterly to provide frequent monitoring of the sector.</p> <p>Currently, the top 20 destinations overall include only two non-OIC destinations, namely Singapore and Thailand. The GMTI40 will give a more balanced view of the Muslim travel segment.</p> <p>A sign of encouragement for non-OIC destinations keen to attract this market can be gleaned by looking at Singapore, which came ninth in the overall rankings. This demonstrates the ability and potential for non-OIC destinations to attract the Muslim travel segment. A mention must also be made of Thailand, which has shown great improvement in the past few years and came 17th in the overall Index with a score of 60.3.</p> <p>At the time of the release of GMTI 2015, GMTI40 stood at 55.9 with the overall average GMTI score for the 100 destinations at 41.6.<br> <br> <img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_5.png"><br> <br> GMTI40 during 2015 will includes these destinations:<br> <br> <img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_6.png"></p> GMTI 2015 Criteria Overview<p><b>1. Family Friendly Holiday Destination</b></p> <p>As one of the important criteria, GMTI takes into account the popularity of a destination for holidays as well as its family friendliness.</p> <p>More than 50% of Muslim tourists travel with their families - a much higher percentage compared with other travel segments. So GMTI takes into account the level of family friendly activities the destination offers.<br> <br> Two main metrics are studied for these criteria:<br> </p> <ul> <li>The overall visitor arrivals at the destination in 2014</li> <li>The availability of activities such as shopping, sightseeing, architecture, arts and culture, nature and wildlife, beaches and more.</li> </ul> <p><b>2. Safe Travel Environment</b><br> <br> A safe and secure environment is key to attracting any tourist to a destination. Historically, empirical studies reveal a very high correlation between a safe travel environment and the number of tourist arrivals to a particular destination. Thus, a safe travel environment is an important catalyst when selecting a tourist destination to travel to. The safe travel environment score is calculated from the perspective of a Muslim traveller. Two primary factors were considered when calculating the scores:</p> <ul> <li>Travel alerts issued on a particular destination by UK, US, Australia and Canada</li> <li>Muslim traveller safety</li> </ul> <p>Travel alerts issued about tourist destinations were used as the primary indicator to ascertain the general security situation of a particular country, especially for travellers. These travel alerts not only covers the general safety and security situation of a country, but also other factors such as natural disasters and health epidemics.<br> <br> For the Muslim travel safety metrics, extensive online research was done to check for incidents reported against Muslims. Many Muslim female tourists wear traditional Islamic clothing which can include the Hijab. In some cases the face covering, Niqab, is also worn. Any resentment prevalent at the destination for such clothing is also taken into account.<br> <br> <b>3. Muslim Visitor Arrivals</b><br> </p> <p>One of the biggest indicators of the popularity of a destination is the volume of Muslim visitor arrivals. It is the first time this criteria has been included in the Index. The Muslim visitor arrival figures have been extracted by applying CrescentRating's proprietary Muslim Arrivals calculation model to the overall visitor arrivals as reported by UNWTO.</p> <p>This study revealed that in 2014 total Muslim visitor arrivals were 108 million, representing 10% of the entire travel economy.<b> </b>The visitor arrivals used for this study are the total non-resident tourists who have entered the national borders of each selected inbound destination. The travel and tourism data provided by UNWTO is the primary source of data.<br> <br> The scores for the Muslim visitor arrival criteria based on the:</p> <p></p> <ul> <li>Total Muslim visitor arrivals</li> <li>Percentage of Muslim visitors as a segment of total visitors</li> </ul> <p>In 2014, 30 destinations accounted for 80% of Muslim visitor arrivals. The top country was Saudi Arabia. This included religious travel to Saudi Arabia.<br> <br> <b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_7.png"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_7.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>4. Dining Options and Halal Assurance</b></p> <p>Availability of Halal food is one of the most important aspects when it comes to catering for Muslim travellers. Muslims are required to only consume Halal food.</p> <p>The main criteria for meat is that it has been slaughtered in a Halal manner. Furthermore, any food which does not use meat or meat based ingredients or alcohol in its preparation is considered permissible to consume. There should also be no risk of Halal food being contaminated with non-Halal food.</p> <p>Given the complexity of the food industry, an independent Halal assurance of a food outlet by a Halal certification body puts Muslims at ease when choosing where to eat.</p> <p>The dining options and Halal assurance score for each destination is based on:</p> <ul> <li>The availability of Halal food in the main cities of the destination</li> <li>The halal certification eco-system in the destination</li> </ul> <p>Halal is easily available in most of the OIC destinations. The availability of Halal food in non-OIC destinations has also being growing in recent years. One example is Taiwan, where the last two years have seen the number of Halal certified outlets double. The certification body is part of the China Muslim Association.</p> <p>Singapore has by far the best halal food environment among the non-OIC destinations. With its well established Halal certified body, MUIS, it has close to 10,000 halal certified food outlets.</p> <p><b>5. Ease of Access to Prayer Places</b></p> <p>Performing prayers (Salah) five times a day is one of the five pillars of Islam. Salah is preceded by ablution, a certain way of cleaning oneself before prayers.</p> <p>The prayer could be performed at any clean location, but most Muslims travellers would prefer a mosque or a designated place for prayers. Hence, ease of access to prayer facilities in the tourist destination will make Muslim travellers comfortable.</p> <p>The scoring methodology for access to prayer places is based on the general availability of prayer facilities in the destination and in particular their availability in the main tourist cities of the destinations.</p> <p>It is no surprise that almost all of the OIC destinations received a score of 100. Most OIC destinations have easy access to mosques, but also in places such as Malaysia and UAE there are prayer places allocated in shopping malls, theme parks etc.</p> <p>Among the non-OIC destinations, Singapore and the United Kingdom get the highest scores of 70. The average score of the top 10 is 57.5. Most non-OIC destinations have a score below this average.</p> <p><b>6. Airport Services and Facilities</b></p> <p>Airports provide various facilities and services that cater to the diverse needs of travellers from around the globe and witness large number of passengers throughout the year.</p> <p>To cater for the growing number of Muslim travellers passing through, it is crucial that airports are able to cater to their specific needs.</p> <p>The two most important services to cater for the needs of Muslim at airports are prayer facilities and Halal food availability. This is even more important if it is a major transit airport.</p> <p>The scoring for this criterion was based on the following:</p> <ul> <li>Availability of prayer rooms in public and transit areas</li> <li>Availability of proper ablution facilities in public and transit areas</li> <li>Availability of Halal food/restaurants in both public and transit areas</li> </ul> <p>Depending on the size of the destination, the above criteria is scored for the main international airports.</p> <p>Most OIC destinations provide all the necessary airport services and facilities at the airport for Muslim travellers.</p> <p>In non-OIC destinations, an increasing number of airports are now providing multi-faith prayer rooms. However, many still lack proper ablution facilities. Furthermore, there is also a large shortage of Halal food outlets in many non-OIC airports.</p> <p>However, there is an indication that many non-OIC destinations are making inroads in this area. Bangkok Suvarnabhumi International stands out as an airport which provides comprehensive prayer and halal food facilities.</p> <p>During 2014, most Japanese airports have set up prayer rooms with ablution facilities, while a few are now also providing halal food</p> <p><b>7. Accommodation Options</b></p> <p>Providing accommodation options which cater for the Muslim travellers is important. Having access to Halal food, prayer direction markings, no alcohol and water friendly washrooms are just some of the most important services that Muslims will look for to make their stay comfortable at hotels or other accommodation.</p> <p>Since a huge proportion of Muslim tourists travel with children and parents, having family friendly accommodation such as an apartment hotel will increase its attractiveness.</p> <p>The accommodation score is based on the following:</p> <ul> <li>Number of hotels, which are promoted as Muslim friendly.</li> <li>The volume of apartment hotel type accommodation available for family travelers</li> </ul> <p>Due to this sector being the slowest to adapt its services to cater for the Muslim market, it has been given the lowest weighting among all the criteria.</p> <p>This is the area which has the lowest average score for the 100 destinations within the Muslim friendly services category. The hotels sector has in general been slow to look at the Muslim travel sector as an important market.</p> <p><b>8. Travel Needs Awareness and Reach Out</b></p> <p>This criteria looks at awareness of the Muslim travel market and its needs at the destination as well as specific reach out by the destination to this segment.</p> <p>This includes marketing campaigns by tourism bodies directly targeting this sector.</p> <p>We have measured the level of awareness using the following metrics:</p> <ul> <li>The percentage of Muslim population in the destination</li> <li>Conferences, workshops, seminars and other educational activities at the destination related to Halal food, Halal travel, Muslim consumers etc.</li> <li>Destination marketing targetted at the Muslim travellers</li> </ul> <p><b>9. Language Proficiency</b></p> <p>Most of the Muslim inbound travellers speak English, Arabic, Bahasa (Malaysia/Indonesia), Turkish, Persian and French. Therefore it is important to evaluate the proficiency in these languages in each destination.</p> <p>The main languages of Muslim travellers and the proficiency were evaluated for each inbound destination. Since Arabic and English cover the majority of this visitor segment they were given a higher weighting.</p> GMTI 2015 Scores<p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_8.png" target="_blank"><img width="578" height="819" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_8.png"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_9.png" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_9.png"></a></p> Footnotes and Data Sources<p>Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade - Australia<a href="http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/" target="_blank"><br> http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/</a></p> <p>Government of Canada<a href="http://travel.gc.ca/travelling/advisories" target="_blank"><br> http://travel.gc.ca/travelling/advisories</a></p> <p>Government of the United Kingdom<a href="https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice" target="_blank"><br> https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice</a></p> <p>Bureau of Consular Affairs – United States<a href="http://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/alertswarnings.html" target="_blank"><br> http://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/alertswarnings.html</a></p> <p>CrescentRating<a href="http://www.crescentrating.com/crahft-ranking-2011/item/894-crescentratings-top-10-halal-friendly-holiday-destinations-for-2011-1432h-1433h.html" target="_blank"><br> http://www.crescentrating.com/crahft-ranking-2013.html<br> http://www.crescentrating.com/crahft-ranking-2011/item/894-crescentratings-top-10-halal-friendly-holiday-destinations-for-2011-1432h-1433h.html</a></p> <p>Booking.com<a href="http://www.booking.com/" target="_blank"><br> http://www.booking.com/</a></p> <p>Index Mundi<a href="http://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/countries" target="_blank"><br> http://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/countries</a></p> <p>United Nations World Tourism Organization - UNWTO<a href="http://www2.unwto.org/" target="_blank"><br> http://www2.unwto.org/</a></p> <p>HalalTrip<a href="http://www.halaltrip.com/" target="_blank"><br> http://www.halaltrip.com/</a></p> Corporate Overview<p><img width="98" height="86" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_10.png"><br> MasterCard is a technology company in the global payments industry. We are leading the way toward a world beyond cash with the power to expand connectivity, opportunity and prosperity for individuals, businesses and communities.</p> <p>We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. Our products and solutions make everyday commerce activities - such as shopping, traveling, running a business, and managing finances - easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Through our payment solutions, we deliver value and connect close to two billion cardholders with tens of millions of merchants around the world.</p> <p>With our state-of-the-art network, MasterCard is in a prime position to roll out the next generation of products and services - whether it’s the EMV migration in the United States, data analytics for merchants, or advancing mobile wallets around the world. Our network maintains a processing performance of 130 milliseconds per transaction, two times faster than the blink of an eye and nearly four times faster than our main competitor.</p> <p>The MasterCard brand is among the most recognized in the world. We offer a wide range of payment solutions, including credit, debit, prepaid and commercial programs, through a family of well-known brands, including MasterCard®, Maestro®, and Cirrus®. And since we launched Priceless Cities® in 2011, we have expanded that program to more than 30 cities around the globe, enabling our cardholders - from New York to Singapore, and from London to Rio - to enjoy exclusive experiences.</p> <p>We generate revenue based on the volume of activity on cards that carry our brands, and the number of transactions we process for our customers as well as other payment-related services that we provide.</p> <p>As we move toward a world beyond cash, we are helping to secure a better, more inclusive future for everyone. We are committed to continuing to use our technology and expertise to deliver better ways to pay, creating a more connected world.<br> <br> <img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_11.png"><br> <br> CrescentRating is the world’s leading authority on Halal-friendly travel. The company’s vision is to lead, innovate and drive this segment through practical and deliverable solutions in what is regarded today as one of the fastest growing segments in the tourism sector.</p> <p>The company uses insight, industry intelligence. lifestyle, behaviour and research on the needs of the Muslim traveler to deliver authoritative guidance on all aspects of Halal-friendly travel to organizations across the globe.</p> <p>Formed in 2008, CrescentRating services are now used by every tier of the tourism industry globally, from government bodies and tourism agencies to hospitality service providers, to inform how they can meet and serve the needs of the Muslim traveler.</p> <p>Its unique rating service, which combines detailed analysis, assessment and benchmarking, is now established as the premier Halal friendly standard for the industry.<br> <br> The primary aim of CrescentRating is to enable Muslim travelers to explore any part of the world with the satisfaction that their needs and requirements are being met.</p> <p>CrescentRating’s services now include rating &amp; accreditation, research &amp; consultancy, workshops &amp; training, ranking &amp; indices, event support/partnerships and content provision. HalalTrip is a sister brand of CrescentRating.<br> <br> <img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GMTI-2015/gmti_12.png"><br> <br> HalalTrip is one of the world’s leading online travel specialists catering specifically to the needs of the Muslim travelers.</p> <p>The platform makes place discovery and trip planning easier, fun and more intuitive for those looking for a Halal-friendly travel experience. Its vision is to become the trusted trip advisor for Muslim travelers around the globe.</p> <p>HalalTrip uses the latest technology to allow consumers to book flights, hotels and holiday packages to destinations across the world via its online platforms. Furthermore, the online portal has been created to satisfy the demands of those searching quality Halal leisure holidays.</p> <p>HalalTrip provides information and resource for its users, providing in-depth looks into destinations across the world. You will find everything required to satisfy the criteria for a Muslim traveler from city and airport guides to Halal restaurant listings and mosque locations, to help Muslims with every aspect of their trip.</p> <p>Through a free and unique mobile application available for iPhone/iPad and Android devices, it has created a series of must-have features to help Muslims navigate their way, whether they are planning their next Halal friendly holiday or want to explore the city where they live. </p> The MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2015 looks at in-depth data covering 100 destinations, to create an overall index, based on a number of criteria which includes suitability as a family holiday destination, the level of services and facilities it provides, accommodation options, marketing initiatives as well as visitor arrivals. It provides travellers, Governments, travel services and investors comprehensive benchmarks across a number of important criteria enabling them to track the health and growth of this travel segment.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2015/MasterCard-CrescentRating-Global-Muslim-Travel-Index-20152015-03-02T16:00:00.000Z2015-03-02T16:00:00.000Z1 in 4 across Asia/Pacific Looking to Hop on a Plane for a Getaway: MasterCard Survey MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite of research products in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the flagship MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, and the MasterCard Wo<b>r</b>ldwide Index of Consumer Purchasing Resilience, both of which are released six monthly, and MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, which is released annually.</p> <p>Besides these, MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports; the series represents in part its ongoing research and analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 70 Insights reports have been produced since 2004. MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by its Asia/Pacific economist, Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> <p>The MasterCard Indexes and Insights reports are available at <u><a href="www.masterintelligence.com">www.masterintelligence.com</a></u></p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p>As a leading global payments company, MasterCard Worldwide prides itself on being at the heart of commerce, helping to make life easier and more efficient for everyone, everywhere.&nbsp; MasterCard serves as a franchisor, processor and advisor to the payments industry, and makes commerce happen by providing a critical economic link among financial institutions, governments, businesses, merchants, and cardholders worldwide.&nbsp; In 2009, $2.5 trillion in gross dollar volume was generated on its products by consumers around the world.&nbsp; Powered by the MasterCard Worldwide Network – the fastest payment processing network in the world – MasterCard processes over 22 billion transactions each year,&nbsp; has the capacity to handle 140 million transactions per hour, with an average network response time of 140 milliseconds and with 99.99 percent reliability.&nbsp; MasterCard advances global commerce through its family of brands, including MasterCard®, Maestro®, and Cirrus®; its suite of core products such as credit, debit, and prepaid; and its innovative platforms and functionalities, such as <i>MasterCard PayPass</i>™ and <i>MasterCard inControl</i>™.&nbsp; MasterCard serves consumers, governments, and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. For more information, please visit us at www.mastercard.com. Follow us on Twitter: @mastercardnews.&nbsp;</p> Contacts<p>Vani Viswanathan,<br> +65 6825 8053,<br> <a href="mailto:vviswanathan@webershandwick.com">vviswanathan@webershandwick.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Vasundhara Subrahmanian,<br> +65 6825 8054,<br> <a href="mailto:vsubrahmanian@webershandwick.com">vsubrahmanian@webershandwick.com</a></p> <p></p> The MasterCard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel provides valuable insights into the Asia/Pacific consumers’ travel preferences and habits. The survey was conducted from 13 September to 11 November 2010 and involved 10,502 consumers from 24 markets across Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2010/1-in-4-across-asia-pacific-looking-to-hop-on-a-plane-for-a-getaw2010-11-23T16:00:00.000Z2010-11-23T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Report 2015 Dr Yuwa Hedrick-Wong and Desmond ChoongIntroduction<p>With data going back to 2009, the Global Destination Cities Index charts how 132 of the most important cities in the world are connected through air travel - how many international visitors arrive at each of these 132 cities from the other cities; and how much these visitors spend during their visit.<sup><a href="#1">1</a><br> </sup></p> <p>The Index is therefore a map of a key human dimension of global connectivity. And over the five years since its launch in 2011, this map shows consistently great dynamism and growth in air travel between these 132 cities, driven by improving infrastructure, rising discretionary spending power (especially in the expanding middle class in emerging markets), and the seemingly unquenchable thirst of an ever-increasing number of people from all walks of life to visit the world.<a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Introduction.jpg"><img width="602" height="275" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Introduction.jpg"></a></p> <p>An interesting aspect of the dynamism of air travel can be seen in the top ten fastest growing destination cities over this seven-year period. As shown in <b>Chart 1</b>, the top ten include cities from most regions of the world except Western Europe and North America, as well as cities in both developed and developing countries. All of these fastest-growing cities show double-digit cumulative annual growth rates (CAGR).</p> <p>Colombo in Sri Lanka is the fastest growing destination city among the 132 cities covered by the Index at 21.1 percent CAGR between 2009 and 2015. Tourism there is clearly recovering strongly after the ending of its longrunning civil war. Three cities in Greater China and two in Japan are also in the top ten, so are two in the Middle East. Many of these are coming off a very low base such as Colombo and Chengdu, but some of them, such as Tokyo, are already a leading destination city in terms of number of international visitors and yet are still showing impressive growth.</p> <p><b>CHART 1 Fastest Growing Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2009-2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/DestinationCities.png"><img width="599" height="335" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/DestinationCities.png"></a></b></p> <p>For comparison of destination cities with similar international visitor numbers, Chart 2 shows the five fastest-growing over the 2009-2015 period among the top 20 destination cities in the world. Avery different picture emerges in this comparison. Four out of five are in Asia led by Taipei, with the fifth, Istanbul, in Central Europe. These are destination cities that have big enough numbers of international visitors to put them in the top 20 of the world, and yet are still growing at double digits. And for the four Asian cities, their strong growth in visitors has come mostly from the massive increase in outbound travel from China.</p> <p><b>CHART 2 Fastest Growing Destination Cities within the Top 20(2009-2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/DestinationCities2.png" target="_blank"><img width="610" height="301" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/DestinationCities2.png"></a></b></p> Growth Potential of Destination Cities<p>A prerequisite for any destination city that aspires to attract more international visitors is to increase the capacity of its airport(s) and frequency of flight connections between the airport and the rest of the world. A &quot;connectivity score&quot; is constructed to assess the destination cities in this regard.<sup><a href="#2">2</a></sup><br> <br> The top five destination cities and changes in their connectivity scores since 2009 are shown in <b>Chart 3</b>.<br> London led the world in 2009, and by 2015 its connectivity score increased by 4.2 points. Paris is second, but its connectivity score has dropped by 13 points since 2009. Next is Dubai, increasing its score by an impressive 20.4 points, and surpassing Frankfurt between 2009 and 2015. Frankfurt slipped to fourth, with its score basically unchanged. Rounding out the top five, Istanbul increased its score by 26.0 points, exceeding the growth rate of Dubai. Not surprisingly, Dubai and Istanbul are dynamic destination cities moving rapidly up the ranks.<br> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="168" height="266" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/London.png"></p> <p>While these changing scores of air connectivity are indicative of the potential of the destination cities, they are not directly correlated with, at least not immediately, their international visitor arrivals. The international arrivals figures also include transit passengers, city residents returning from overseas trips, and passengers arriving from other domestic airports, which are excluded in the estimates of international overnight visitors.&nbsp;</p> <p><b>CHART 3 Top 6 Global Leading Hubs by International Connectivity Score (London 2009 = 100)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart3.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="310" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart3.png"></a></b></p> <p>A different way to gauge the performance of a destination city is to take into account the size of the city's resident population, and look at the number of international overnight visitors that it attracts per city resident. From this perspective, Dubai is the unmistakable world champion as shown in <b>Chart 4</b>. It went from 4.9 visitors per resident in 2009 to 5.7 in 2015, basically in a league of its own.<br> <br> In contrast, some of the leading and most successful destination cities in the world have much lower visitor to resident ratios because of their large resident population, such as London and NEW York. Dubai is such an outlier because of both the large number of international visitors and the very small size of its resident population.</p> <p><b>CHART 4 Top 20 Global Destinations by Overnight Visitor Arrivals per city resident 2009 versus 2015</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart4.png" target="_blank"><img width="602" height="325" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart4.png"></a></b></p> <p>Similarly, Dubai Leads the world in terms of international visitor spending per city resident, estimated at US$4,668 in 2015 as shown in Chart 5. It is almost double the second-ranked Barcelona at US$2,793. Singapore, London and Kuala Lumpur are in third, fourth and fifth ranks with international visitor spending per city resident estimated at US$2,639, US$2,480, and US$1,933 respectively.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><b><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Dubai.png"></b></p> <p><b>CHART 5 Top 20 Global Destinations by Overnight Visitor Arrival Expenditure per City Resident in 2015</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart5.png"><img width="579" height="309" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart5.png"></a></b></p> <p>Last but not least, a note-worthy feature of the human connectivity dimension captured by the Index is that international visitor numbers and their cross-border spending have been consistently growing faster than world real GDP since 2009, as illustrated in <b>Chart 6</b>.</p> <p><b>CHART 6 World GDP Growth Versus the Growth of International Visitor Arrivals and Spend by the 132 Destinations</b></p> <p><b><img width="415" height="239" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart6.png"><img width="169" height="250" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/InternationalVisitors.png"></b></p> <p>This is extraordinary given the generally weak and uneven global economic recovery in the aftermath of the 2009 global financial crisis, as well as the fact that world trade grew slower than world GDP since 2009. International air travel is clearly a powerful trend that will persist in the years to come. In 2015, it is expected that 382.9 million trips will be made by international visitors by air between the 132 cities covered by the Index, spending a total of US$360 billion during their visits. These numbers represent a massive source of demand for goods and services, generating business opportunities for a wide range of industries, benefiting companies large and small, and creating jobs that cover the spectrum from the highly skilled to the low-skilled. Because the demand comes from visitors from outside of the country, it is equivalent to exports, hence serving to simulate the local economies as a force multiplier that further strengthens domestic demand. In connecting the world, air travel is also vital to the well-being of the local economies in the destination cities.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="138" height="245" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Trips.png"></p> Top 20 Global Destination Cities in 2015<p>London is again the world top-ranked destination city with 18.82 million international visitors expected in 2015, slightly ahead of the second-ranked Bangkok with 18.24 million. London has topped the Index in five out of seven years, except 2012 and 2013, when Bangkok held the lead position. Given the very thin margin that London has over Bangkok, about half a million international visitors, their rivalry for the top rank is likely to persist. They are followed by Paris, Dubai, Istanbul, New York, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Seoul and Hong Kong in the world top ten. Apart from Istanbul moving up from seventh to fifth rank, pushing New York and Singapore down by one rank, the top 20 in 2015 are identical to the top 20 in 2014.</p> <p><b>CHART 7 Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart7.png"><img width="435" height="399" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart7.png"><img width="134" height="398" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/London2.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>Table 1</b> shows the growth rates of the world top 20 destination cities between 2014 and 2015 (2014 rank in parenthesis). Istanbul shows the strongest growth at 11.4 percent, moving to fifth from seventh. Both Bangkok and Dubai grew by 8.0 percent, the second fastest after Istanbul. </p> <p><b>TABLE 1 Global Top 20 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table1.png" target="_blank"><img width="497" height="392" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table1.png"></a></b></p> <p>London is also the top city by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015. This is over 16 percent higher than the second-ranked New York at US$17.27 billion, underscoring London's preeminent position as a leading destination city. Even though Bangkok ranks second in international visitors, it ranks seventh in visitor spending, reflecting its lower costs of Living.</p> <p><b>CHART 8 Global Top 20 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2015)</b> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart8.png" target="_blank"><img width="552" height="419" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart8.png"></a></p> <p>In spite of ranking only seventh in visitors' cross-border spending, however, Bangkok has the fastest growth rate in visitor spending at 11.8 percent between 2014 and 2015. Kuala Lumpur's growth is the second fastest at 8.7 percent; followed by Istanbul and Dubai respectively. However, eight of the top 20 show contraction in visitor cross-border spending in 2015 which is to a large extent the result of the depreciation of their currencies against the U.S. dollar, which is used to estimate cross-border spending for all the destination cities. The biggest contraction is seen in Tokyo (-6.8 percent), followed by Sydney, Barcelona, Taipei, Madrid and Rome. While the currencies of Thailand, Malaysia, Turkey and the UAE have also depreciated against the U.S. dollar, their visitor spending has increased strongly enough to compensate for the effects of currency depreciation to show robust growth.</p> <p><b>Table 2 Global Top 20 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitor Spend (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table2.png" target="_blank"><img width="545" height="633" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table2.png"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific<p>The top ten destination cities in Asia/Pacific and their visitor numbers and cross-border spending are summarized in Table 3. Bangkok, ranked second in the world, is the top destination in Asia/Pacific. The Asia/Pacific ranking of the top nine out of ten are unchanged from 2014. But, Osaka moved into tenth, displacing Melbourne. In terms of cross-border spending, Seoul leads in Asia/Pacific with an expected US$15.2 billion, followed by Singapore at US$14.7 billion, Bangkok at US$12.4 billion, Kuala Lumpur at US$12.0 billion, and Taipei at US$9.3 billion.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="193" height="246" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Bangkok.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 3 Asia/Pacific's Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors and Cross-Border Spending (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table3.png" target="_blank"><img width="600" height="340" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table3.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Bangkok2.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="262" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Bangkok2.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>Chart 9</b> shows the contributions to Bangkok from its top five feeder cities. All five are in Asia/Pacific, and the most important feeder city for Bangkok is Hong Kong, accounting for 1.5 minion visitors and just over US$1 billion in spending. Singapore follows with about 1.3 million visitors and US$647 million spending, and so on.</p> <p><b>CHART 9 Bangkok's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart9.png" target="_blank"><img width="608" height="264" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart9.png"></a></b></p> <p>Singapore's top five feeder cities are also all from Asia/Pacific. Jakarta looms Large as the top feeder city for Singapore, contributing 1.7 million visitors and US$2.7 billion with an average spend per visit at impressively high at US$1,550. This is far above those from the other top feeder cities of Tokyo, Hong Kong, Manila and Shanghai.</p> <p><b>CHART 10 Singapore's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart10.png" target="_blank"><img width="600" height="552" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart10.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>CHART 11 Kuala Lumpur's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart11.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="264" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart11.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>Chart 11 </b>shows Kuala Lumpur's top five feeder cities, which are clustered in Southeast Asia and the two Australian cities of Sydney and Melbourne. Singapore is the most important feeder city for Kuala Lumpur, accounting for 1.2 million visitors and US$1.3 billion in spending.</p> <p>From the perspective of cumulative growth since 2009, the top ten fastest growing destination cities in Asia/Pacific are summarized in Table 4. Colombo in Sri Lanka is the fastest growing with a CAGR of 21.1 percent, albeit coming off a very tow base, with just over one million visitors in 2005. Chengdu in the Sichuan Province of China is the second fastest growing, with a CAGR of 20.7 percent. It is also growing from a tow base, with about 1.5 million visitors in 2015. Osaka is the third fastest, but it is already a top-ranked destination city with 4.6 million visitors in 2015. Osaka's strong growth in recent years is due to a massive increase of visitors from China, which has also driven up growth of visitors to Tokyo, making it the sixth fastest growing in Asia/Pacific. Bangkok, the world second-ranked, has managed an impressive CAGR of 11.7 percent, putting it in tenth, in terms of growth rates in the region.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Colombo.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 4 Asia/Pacific Fastest Growing Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2009 - 2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table4.png" target="_blank"><img width="594" height="390" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table4.png"></a></b></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Bangkok.png" target="_blank"></a></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Europe<p>London, the world's number one, is naturally the top-ranked in Europe as well. It is followed by Paris and Istanbul in second and third respectively. Istanbul, however, has a much higher growth rate than Paris. If these two cities continue to grow their international visitors' numbers at the current rates, in four years, Istanbul will overtake Paris to become second-ranked in Europe. In terms of visitor cross-border spending, London is also ranked first with over US$20 billion estimated for 2015, followed by Paris, Barcelona, Istanbul, Madrid and Munich.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="183" height="251" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/London3.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 5 Europe's Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors and Cross-Border Spending (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table5.png" target="_blank"><img width="603" height="282" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table5.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/London4.png" target="_blank"><img width="606" height="267" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/London4.png"></a></b></p> <p>New York is the most important feeder city for London, accounting for dose to a million visitors in 2015 and about US$1.2 billion of spending. New York is followed by Amsterdam, Dublin, Frankfurt and Stockholm. <b>Chart 12</b> summarizes the details of the top five feeder cities for London.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 12 London's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart12.png" target="_blank"><img width="598" height="264" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart12.png"></a></b></p> <p>London is the most important feeder city for Paris in terms of visitors. Interestingly, two of the top five feeder cities for Paris are outside of Europe; New York (ranked second) and Tokyo (ranked fourth). As <b>Chart 13</b> shows, in spending terms, New York is the biggest feeder city for Paris, estimated at US$632 million in 2015.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 13 Paris's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart13.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="550" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart13.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Istanbul.png" target="_blank"><img width="598" height="256" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Istanbul.png"></a></b></p> <p>All top five feeder cities for Istanbul are in Europe, and London is the most important, followed by Paris, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Amsterdam, as seen in <b>Chart 14</b>. London is also the biggest feeder city in terms of visitor spending, estimated at US$432 million in 2015.</p> <p><b>CHART 14 Istanbul's Top 5 Feeder Cities </b><b>(2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart14.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="263" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart14.png"></a></b></p> <p>Istanbul is currently the fastest growing destination city in Europe. Three cities in Eastern Europe are also among the top ten fastest growing European destination cities: Bucharest (ranked sixth), Budapest is ranked seventh), and Warsaw is ranked eighth). The details are summarized in <b>Table 6</b>.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Istanbul2.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 6 Europe's Fastest Growing Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2009 -2015 CA GR)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table6.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="417" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table6.png"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Latin America <p>The top ten destination cities in Latin America in 2015 are identical to 2014, as Lima tops the list with almost 50 percent more international visitors than second-ranked Mexico City. The Brazilian cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are in third and seventh, respectively. In terms of visitor spending, however, Punta Cana in the Dominican Republic is in the top-ranked with an estimated US$2.7 billion in 2015, followed by Buenos Aires and Mexico City both with US$2.3 billion, Sao Paulo with US$2.2 billion and Lima with US$1.5 billion.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Lima.png" target="_blank"><img width="156" height="284" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Lima.png"></a></p> <p><b>Table 7 Latin America’s Top 19 Destination Cities By International Overnight Visitors and Cross-Border Spending (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table7.png" target="_blank"><img width="598" height="318" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table7.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Lima2.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="257" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Lima2.png"></a></b></p> <p>The top five feeder cities for Lima are shown in Chart 15. Santiago is its biggest feeder city, followed by Buenos Aires, Miami, Bogota, and Mexico City. In visitor spending, however, BuenosAires overtakes Santiago as Lima's biggest feeder city. </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart15.png" target="_blank"><img width="600" height="294" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart15.png"></a></p> <p><b>CHART 16 Mexico City's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart16.png" target="_blank"><img width="602" height="273" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart16.png"></a></b></p> <p>For Mexico City, four out of the top five feeder cities are in North America. Miami is the biggest, followed by New York, Bogota, LosAngeles, and Houston. Miami is also the biggest feeder city in terms of visitor spending for Mexico City. </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Mexico.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="255" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Mexico.png"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/SaoPaulo.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="261" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/SaoPaulo.png"></a></p> <p><b>CHART 17 Sao Paulo's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart17.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="265" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart17.png"></a></b></p> <p>Sao Paulo's top feeder cities, in comparison, are within the region with the exception of Miami, which is ranked third. The biggest is Buenos Aires in both number of visitors and their spending.</p> <p>Lima, apart from being the top-ranked destination city in Latin America, is also the region's fastest growing. Mexico City, which is ranked second in international visitors, is only the fourth fastest growing, lagging behind Bogota and Punta Cana. Details of the growth rates of the top eight destination cities in Latin America are summarized in <b>Table 8</b>. </p> <p><b>TABLE 8 Latin America's Fastest Growing Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2009 -2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table8.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="363" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table8.png"></a></b></p> Top 20 Destination Cities in Middle East & Africa <p>Dubai, fourth in the world, is the top-ranked destination city in the Middle East and Africa region. Dubai is very much in a league of its own in the region It attracts 14.3 million international visitors in 2015, over three times more than the second-ranked Johannesburg. Riyadh and Abu Dhabi follow in third and fourth, with 4.3 million and 2.7 million respectively. Another South African city, Cape Town, is in fifth, with close to 2 million international visitors. Dubai's is also in the top rank in terms of visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$11.7 billion in 2015, four and a half times bigger than the second-ranked Johannesburg. As Chart 6.1 shows, the rest of the top ten destination cities in the region tend to have between US$1 billion to US$2 billion in visitor spending, with visitor spending in Casablanca estimated at US$600 million.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="169" height="272" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Dubai2.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 9 Middle East &amp; Africa's Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors and Cross-Border Spending (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table9.png"><img width="601" height="281" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table9.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Dubai3.png"><img width="599" height="253" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Dubai3.png"></a></b></p> <p>Dubai's top five feeder cities are Doha, London, Kuwait, Muscat, and Jeddah as shown in Chart 18. London's contribution as a feeder city to visitor spending in Dubai, however, is the biggest at US$1.34 billion estimated for 2015, which is about double the size of visitor spending from Doha at US$740 million.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 18 Dubai's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart18.png"><img width="601" height="268" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart18.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>CHART 19 Johannesburg's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart19.png"><img width="600" height="275" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart19.png"></a></b></p> <p>The two top feeder cities for Johannesburg are in Europe - London and Frankfurt. They are followed by Harare, Maputo, and Windhoek in the southern Africa region. London and Frankfurt are also in the first and second ranks in terms of visitor spending in Johannesburg.</p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Johannesburg.png"><img width="603" height="257" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Johannesburg.png"></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Riyadh.png"><img width="599" height="260" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Riyadh.png"></a></p> <p><b>CHART 20 Riyadh's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart20.png"><img width="601" height="266" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart20.png"></a></b></p> <p>Riyadh's top five feeder cities are all in the region. Cairo is in the top rank, followed by Dubai, Amman, Doha, and Alexandria. In terms of visitor spending in Riyadh, the ranking is almost the same, with exception that Alexandria is fourth and Doha fifth.</p> <p>In terms of grow rate, Abu Dhabi is the region's top-ranked destination city with an impressive CAGR of 20.4 percent between 2009 and 2015. Riyadh follows closely behind at 18.0 percent. The details are summarized in Table 10.</p> <p><b>TABLE 10 Middle East &amp; Africa's Fastest Growing Destination Cities Di International Overnight Visitors (2009 - 2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table10.png"><img width="600" height="382" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table10.png"></a></b></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in North America <p>New York, ranked sixth in the world, is the top-ranked in North America in international visitors in 2015. It is followed by Los Angeles and Miami in second and third, respectively. The Canadian cities of Toronto and Vancouver follow in fourth and fifth, with Montreal in eighth. New York is also tops in the region in visitor spending, estimated at US$17.4 billion in 2015, which is more than 2.3 times bigger than the second-ranked Los Angeles at IJS$7.4 billion. The details of the top ten in North America are summarized in Table 11.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="155" height="267" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/NewYork.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 11 North America's Top 10 Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors and Cross-Border Spending (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table11.png" target="_blank"><img width="603" height="291" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table11.png"></a></b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/NewYork2.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="265" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/NewYork2.png"></a></b></p> <p>With the exception of Toronto, four out of five of New York's biggest feeder cities are from outside of North America. The biggest is London, followed by Sao Paulo, Paris, Toronto, and Beijing. Even though Beijing is in the fifth rank in terms of visitor numbers, it is the biggest feeder city for New York in terms of spending, estimated at US$1.3 billion in 2015, more than Sao Paulo's US$1.2 billion, and London's US$1.1 billion, another sign if the far-reaching impact of the massive increase in outbound travel in China.<br> </p> <p><b>CHART 21 New York's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart21.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="269" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart21.png"></a></b></p> <p><b>CHART 22 Los Angeles' Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)<br> </b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart22.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="272" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart22.png"></a></b></p> <p>Los Angeles also has very diversified feeder cities. London is the biggest, followed by Vancouver, Shanghai, Tokyo and Paris. In visitor spending terms, Shanghai is the biggest with an estimated US$896 million in 2015, much higher than Tokyo, in second place, at US$506 million. Like New York, Los Angeles is also feeling the impact of the massive increase of outbound travel from China. Paris followed with US$409 million, London with US$352 million, and Vancouver with US$101 million<br> </p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/LA.png" target="_blank"><img width="607" height="240" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/LA.png"></a></p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Miami.png" target="_blank"><img width="600" height="258" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Miami.png"></a></p> <p><b>CHART 23 Miami's Top 5 Feeder Cities (2015)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart23.png" target="_blank"><img width="601" height="264" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Chart23.png"></a></b></p> <p>Miami is closely connected with Latin America as four out of its top five feeder cities are in that region. The exception is London, which is in the third rank. Sao Paulo is top-ranked, followed by BuenosAires, London, Bogota and Caracas. Sao Paulo is also first, in terms of visitor spending in Miami, which is estimated at US$1.2 billion in 2015, almost twice as high as spending by visitors from second-ranked BuenosAires.</p> <p>In terms of CAGR, Houston is the fastest growing in North America since 2009 at 10.5 percent. It is the only destination city in North America with double digit CAGR. It is followed by Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco. The details are summarized in <b>Table 12</b>.<br> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="148" height="160" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Houston.png"></p> <p><b>TABLE 12 North America's Fastest Growing Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2009- 2015 CAGR)</b></p> <p><b><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table12.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="400" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table12.png"></a></b></p> Conclusions<p>International visitors and their spending play an increasingly critical role in boosting economic dynamism in destination cities around the world. As mentioned earlier, the global economic recovery remains tentative and uneven, and demand for exports continues to be weak. In this context, stronger growth in international visitors and spending can make a significant contribution to income and employment generation for the destination cities.</p> <p>How resilient are the destination cities in this more challenging global economic environment? One way to assess it is to look at how many feeder cities account for 50 percent of their international visitors. The more the feeder cities, the more diversified the source of international visitors a destination city has, and, everything else being equal, the more resilient it becomes. Table 13 summarizes the estimates of number of feeder cities that account for 50% of international visitors for the top 20 most diversified destination cities in the world. It turns out that Istanbul, ranked sixth in the world in international visitors, is the most diversified, with 50 percent of its international visitors coming from 33 feeder cites. London, the top-ranked in the world, in the second most resilient with 26 feeder cities followed by Paris, Amsterdam and Dubai.</p> <p>Asian destination cities, which are among the fastest growing in the world, appear to be less diversified and hence less resilient. Bangkok, ranked second in the world as a destination city, is in seventh place in resilience, with only 13 feeder cities accounting for 50 percent of its international visitors. Singapore, ranked seventh in the world, is tenth in resilience, while Hong Kong, ranked tenth in the world, is in 12th place in resilience.</p> <p>The challenge going forward for many of these otherwise very successful destination cities is to diversify their sources of visitors while maintaining their robust rates of growth.</p> <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table13.png" target="_blank"><img width="599" height="509" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2015/GDCI2015/Table13.png"></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;">[End of Report]<br> </p> <p><i><a name="1"></a>[1] Visitors are defined as those arriving from outside of the country and who stay at least one night in the destination city.<br> See Appendix for more details.</i></p> <p><i><a name="2"></a>[2] It is based on weekly non-stop flight frequencies to and from other destination cities, adjusted for capacity, with a heavier weight assigned to inter-region flights, and the value of London in 2009 is set as 100. Please see Appendix for more details.</i></p> The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2015. Public data is used in deriving the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Dubai, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2015/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-report-20152015-06-02T16:00:00.000Z2015-06-02T16:00:00.000ZMastercard Asia-Pacific Destinations Index (APDI) 2015 1. INTRODUCTION<p>In recent years, Asia Pacific cities have increasingly dominated the fastest growing and most visited destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index.</p> <p></p> <p>The first MasterCard Asia Pacific Destinations Index, an offshoot of the annual Global Destination Cities Index, takes a more in-depth, focused look at these tourism trends, ranking 167 destinations, including island resorts as well as towns and cities across the region, in terms of the total number of international overnight arrivals; cross-border spending; and the total number of nights spent at each destination. The destinations are drawn from 22 countries in Asia Pacific, representing 90 percent of all international overnight arrivals. The numbers for 2015 may be different between the Global Destination Cities Index 2015 and the Asia Pacific Destinations Index as the former is published earlier in the year and does not have the benefit of using more updated data from 2015 than does the Asia Pacific Destinations Index.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/WindowOverlookingCity.jpg"><img width="347" height="325" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/WindowOverlookingCity.jpg"></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/InternationalOvernightArrivals.jpg"><img width="89" height="325" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/InternationalOvernightArrivals.jpg"></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;">Chart 1: Travel and Tourism Total Contribution to GDP (US$ bn)</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart1.jpg"><img width="397" height="298" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart1.jpg"></a></p> <p>Tourism made up 9.3 percent of Asia Pacific’s GDP and its total employment in 2015<sup><a href="#1">1</a></sup>. In absolute terms this translates to US$2.27 trillion and 153.7 million jobs in 2015, making Asia Pacific’s tourism industry the largest in the world by GDP contribution and employment.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart2.jpg"><img width="298" height="355" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart2.jpg"></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/AsiaPac23.jpg"><img width="254" height="280" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/AsiaPac23.jpg"></a></p> <p>In 2014, the Asia Pacific region made up 23 percent of the world’s international overnight arrivals and 30 percent of its international tourism receipts. It has been the fastest growing region for international tourism since 2005, with South Asia and Southeast Asia the two fastest growing sub-regions at 8.6 percent and 7.9 percent respectively.<sup><a href="#2">2</a></sup></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><sup><a target="_blank" href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Top20AsiaPacificDestinations.jpg"><img width="312" height="240" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Top20AsiaPacificDestinations.jpg"></a></sup></p> <p>The Top 20 Destinations of Asia Pacific represent about 50.0 percent of all International Overnight Arrivals to the 167 destinations covered.</p> <p>On a sub-regional basis there is close balance between North and Southeast Asia with 10 and eight destinations each in the top 20. The remaining two are from South Asia. Although no Oceanic destinations make the top 20, Sydney sits at the cusp at number 21.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Chart 3: International Overnight Arrivals to Asia Pacific’s Sub-regions</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart3.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="384" height="229" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart3.jpg"></a></p> <p>Eight of the top 20 are capital cities within their respective countries. Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, and Seoul are in the top six. At the country level, China has three destinations in the top 20 – Shanghai (#12), Beijing (#18) and Guangdong province (#19, excludes Guangzhou, Shenzhen &amp; Zhuhai). Thailand has three destinations in the top 20 – Bangkok (#1), Phuket (#5) and the coastal city of Pattaya (#8) – while Japan has four with Tokyo (#3), Osaka (#10) Hokkaido (#14) and Chiba (#17). India (Mumbai #15 and Chennai #16) and Cambodia (Siem Reap #13 and Phnom Penh #20) have two destinations each.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Skyline.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="455" height="281" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Skyline.jpg"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/AsiaPacMap.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="397" height="559" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/AsiaPacMap.jpg"></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;">Chart 4: Asia Pacific Top 20 Destinations by International Overnight Arrivals</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart4.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="345" height="250" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart4.jpg"></a></p> <p>Seven of the top 20 saw over 10 percent growth in international overnight arrivals between 2014 and 2015 – Chiba (56.6 percent), Osaka (54.0 percent), Tokyo (53.2 percent), Hokkaido (50.3 percent), Bangkok (28.6 percent), Phuket (15.5 percent) and Pattaya (10.0 percent). Mainland Chinese tourists contributed the bulk of growth in these seven destinations (more than 70 percent of the growth for all three Thai destinations and more than 45 percent of the growth for all four Japanese destinations).</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Chart 5: Asia Pacific Top 20 Destinations by Total Nights Stayed by International Tourists</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart5.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="330" height="222" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart5.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Bangkok.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Bangkok.jpg"></a></p> <p>From the perspective of total nights the ranking changes dramatically with Sydney, ranked 21st place in terms of arrivals moving up to second place in terms of overall nights spent due to the fact that the average number of nights spent in Sydney is at a very high 23.7 nights per overnight arrival. This characteristic of high average nights is shared by all the Australian destinations covered and results in a boost to overall nights and total spend that is in great contrast to their arrivals rank. As a result Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth move from 29th, 31st and 97th place respectively in terms of arrivals to ninth, eighth and 13th place by total nights leaving Australia with three of the top 20 destinations. As many tourists will have further to travel to get to Australia it is likely they decide to stay for longer to make the journey worthwhile. Bangkok, ranked number one by overnight arrivals, is also number one for total nights stayed by international tourists, while Kuala Lumpur takes the third spot, followed by Tokyo at number four. Bali ranked ninth for arrivals is at number five in terms of total nights. Bali has the highest average nights per tourist in the top 20 at 9.1 nights.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Chart 6: Asia Pacific Top 20 Destinations by Total Expenditure by International Tourists</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart6.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="367" height="267" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Chart6.jpg"></a></p> <p>Bangkok also ranked number one in total expenditure at US$15.2 billion, with Seoul (US$14.4 billion) coming in second place, followed by Singapore (US$14.1 billion), Tokyo (US$11.9 billion) and Kuala Lumpur (US$10.5 billion). Tourists to Seoul (US$258 per day) spend about the same as those visiting Singapore (US$255 per day) on a per day basis, however they stay an average of 6.0 days compared to 4.7 for those visiting Singapore. Of the top 20 by total expenditure, five of the destinations command more than US$200 per day expenditure – Shanghai (US$269 per day), Beijing (US$262 per day), Seoul (US$258 per day), Singapore (US$255 per day) Hong Kong (US$240 per day), and Taipei (US$224 per day).</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="337" height="164" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/BangkokTypography.jpg"></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Singapore.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="524" height="243" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/reports/2016/APDI2016/Singapore.jpg"></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;"></p> <p></p> Appendix<p>The 167 destinations in the Index are:</p> <p>China: Anhui (excl. major cities), Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Fujian (excl. major cities), Fuzhou, Guangdong (excl. major cities), Guangxi (excl. major cities), Guangzhou, Guilin, Guizhou, Hainan, Hangzhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Huangshan, Hubei (excl. major cities), Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu (excl. major cities), Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning (excl. major cities), Kunming, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shandong (excl. major cities), Shaanxi (excl. major cities), Shanghai, Shanxi, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Sichuan (excl. major cities), Suzhou, Tianjin, Wuhan, Wuxi, Xiamen, Xi An, Xinjiang, Yunnan (excl. major cities), Zhejiang (excl. major cities), Zhuhai</p> <p>Korea: Busan, Gangwon, Jeju, Seoul</p> <p>Taiwan: Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung, Taipei, Tai Chung</p> <p>Hong Kong Macau</p> <p>Japan: Aichi, Chiba, Fukuoka, Gifu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ishikawa, Kanagawa, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Nagano, Nagasaki, Oita, Okinawa, Osaka, Shizuoka, Tokyo, Yamanashi</p> <p>Singapore</p> <p>Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Hat Yai, Hua Hin, Koh Chang, Koh Pha Ngan, Koh Samui, Koh Tao, Krabi, Narathiwat, Pattaya, Phang Nga, Phuket, Rayong, Samut Prakan, Yala</p> <p>Indonesia: Bali, Bandung, Banten, Batam, Jakarta, Lombok, Medan</p> <p>Malaysia: Alor Star/ Langkawi, Johor, Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan/ Highlands, Malacca, Negri Sembilang, Penang, Perak, Sabah, Sarawak</p> <p>The Philippines: Boracay, Caramines Sur, Cebu, Manila</p> <p>Vietnam: Ha Long, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City</p> <p>Myanmar: Yangon Cambodia: Phnom Penh, Siem Reap</p> <p>Laos: Champassak, Khammoune, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, Vientiane Fiji Guam</p> <p>Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney</p> <p>New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Northland, Queenstown, Southland, Tauranga, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast, Maldives</p> <p>India: Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Lucknow, Mumbai, Patna, Simla, Thiruvananthapuram</p> <p>Sri Lanka: Colombo, Galle, Kandy</p> Methodology<p>The 167 destinations represent about 308 million overnight arrivals and constitute 90 percent of all overnight arrivals to the 22 countries. Other notable exclusions to Asia Pacific coverage are destinations in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia and several Oceania island nations. In total these excluded nations would have contributed under 3.5 million overnight arrivals and would represent about 1 percent of the destinations covered. There are several destinations in Vietnam – representing about 12.5 million or 4 percent of the 22 countries in Asia Pacific – that are not covered in this report due to a lack of usable data in apportioning this number among Vietnamese destinations outside of Ho Chi Minh, Ha Long and Hanoi. Finally, within the 22 markets, destinations with less than 175 international thousand overnight tourists in 2015 have been excluded from coverage.</p> <p>The underlying data has been sourced primarily from National Tourism Boards. 2014 estimates in the absence of official data and 2015 forecasts were made by the analyst using data at the national level, which is more timely than data at the local destination level. While many of the destinations are at the city or metropolis level, in other cases the coverage is at the state/province or regional level largely following the way that the official statistics are presented. A special case is China where data is available at the province level and at the level of the major cities. In cases where the major cities of a province have low levels of overnight arrivals (less than one million) or are not presented, we default to the province level. In cases where the major cities of a province have high levels of overnight arrivals (more than one million) we present both the cities and the province data (excluding said cities) so as to avoid a double count.</p> <p>For most of the destinations, coverage includes all overnight international arrivals (those staying at paid and unpaid accommodations). However, in the case of destinations in China, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia, only arrivals at paid-for accommodation are included as there is insufficient data to estimate total overnight arrivals. This would imply an underestimation of up to around 15 percent of total arrivals in these five markets. This underestimation can be much higher in specific destinations (e.g. Singapore and Johor) with high incidences of shared land borders where overseas visitors may enter the border frequently to stay the night in residences that they own (e.g. live in Johor but work in Singapore). While many of these cases may not be considered strictly tourists, they are sometimes counted as such by national tourism boards. '<br> </p> <p>Some origin country – destination pairs have been specifically excluded from the total for this reason, including:</p> <ul> <li>Malaysian citizen arrivals to Singapore by land (as the Singapore Tourism Board specifically excludes coverage of this)</li> </ul> <ul> <li>Brunei arrivals by land to Sarawak in East Malaysia (the geographic nature of Brunei forces some parts of the population to cross over into Sarawak to get to other parts of Brunei)</li> <li>China arrivals to Hong Kong and Macau and vice versa (Macau to Hong Kong and China; Hong Kong to China and Macau) as these flows are not strictly international</li> </ul> <p><b><u>Footnotes</u></b></p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1] &quot;Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2014 – Asia Pacific&quot;, World Tourism and Travel Council 2015</p> <p><a name="2"></a>[2] UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2015 Edition.</p> The Asia Pacific Destinations Index provides a ranking of 167 destinations, including island resorts as well as towns and cities across the region, by total number of international overnight arrivals; cross-border spending; and the total number of nights spent at each destination. These 167 destinations are drawn from 22 countries across Asia Pacific and represent 90.1% of all international overnight arrivals within the region.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/reports/2016/apdi-20152016-01-26T16:00:00.000Z2016-01-26T16:00:00.000ZTravel Bug Bites One in Four Consumers in Asia/Pacific: MasterCard Survey MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>MasterCard puts out a series of ongoing consumer surveys and research Indices in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa. These include the MasterCard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities, the MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Purchasing Resilience, the MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence and MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement.</p> <p>Besides these, MasterCard also regularly releases its Insights reports; the series is part its ongoing research and analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 70 Insights reports have been produced since 2004. MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by its Asia/Pacific economist, Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> <p>The MasterCard Indexes and Insights reports are available at <a href="http://www.masterintelligence.com/">www.masterintelligence.com</a></p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p>MasterCard Worldwide advances global commerce by providing a critical economic link among financial institutions, businesses, cardholders and merchants worldwide. As a franchisor, processor and advisor, MasterCard develops and markets payment solutions, processes over 22 billion transactions each year, and provides industry-leading analysis and consulting services to financial-institution customers and merchants. Powered by the MasterCard Worldwide Network and through its family of brands, including MasterCard®, Maestro® and Cirrus®, MasterCard serves consumers and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. For more information, go to www.mastercard.com. Follow us on Twitter: @mastercardnews.</p> Contacts<p><b>Eugenia Koh<br> </b>Weber Shandwick Worldwide,<br> <a href="mailto:ekoh@webershandwick.com">ekoh@webershandwick.com</a>,<br> (65) 6825- 8029</p> <p><b>Vani Viswanathan<br> </b>Weber Shandwick Worldwide,<br> <a href="mailto:vviswanathan@webershandwick.com">vviswanathan@webershandwick.com</a>,<br> (65) 6825- 8053</p> <p></p> The MasterCard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel provides valuable insights into the Asia/Pacific consumers’ travel preferences and habits. The survey was conducted from 15 March to 12 April 2010 and involved 10,503 consumers from 24 markets.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2010/travel-bug-bites-one-in-four-consumers-in-asia-pacific--masterca2010-05-31T16:00:00.000Z2010-05-31T16:00:00.000ZSpending Powerhouse Sydney Sixth in Global Index Georgette TanSydney – Key Spending Destination<p>Australian holiday hotspot, Sydney, did not feature in the top twenty for visitor arrivals, but ranked highly on visitor expenditure, ranking sixth in the Index with international visitors expected to spend US$13.8 billion (A$14.05 billion)<sup>[1]</sup>&nbsp;in the city in 2011.</p> <p>MasterCard Australia Country Manager, Andrew Cartwright said, &quot;Analysts and business owners in Australia have expressed concern over recent months about the impact that the continued strength of the Australian Dollar will have on visitors looking to travel to our shores, but it is heartening to see that, not only are our cities as popular as ever, visitors plan to spend more when they get here.</p> <p>&quot;What is really encouraging for our travel and tourism sector is that Sydney performs particularly well globally in terms of international visitor expenditure, coming in ahead of renowned shopping and entertainment destinations Los Angeles, Madrid and Singapore.”</p> <p></p> Australia – Top ten internationally for visitor expenditure growth<p>The Index also looked at the growth rates of visitor expenditure in destination cities and found Melbourne, which ranks lower than Sydney in terms of overall visitor expenditure, ranked eighth in the world for predicted growth, with visitor spending expected to grow by 19% this year (see table 1).</p> <p>&quot;Melbourne is proving itself as a future hotspot for international travellers with growth in visitor expenditure expected to be almost one fifth higher this year than it was for the same period in 2010. The real winners will be the businesses that seize the opportunity this presents and prepare themselves for the expected growth in spending over the next twelve months.”</p> <p>Andrew Cartwright adds: &quot;These results should ease some concerns by those polled in the recent Tourism and Transport Forum/MasterCard survey which found that the Australian travel industry were concerned by the continued dominance of the Dollar and the detrimental impact it could have on inbound travel to Australia.</p> <p>Placing these Australian results in a global context, the research showed that last year across all 132 cities, cross border spending and outbound departures were up significantly – with growth of 14.6% and 9.2% respectively, well surpassing world GDP figures.</p> <p>In 2011 some destination cities are expecting visitor expenditure growth to increase up to 30% and visitor arrivals up 24%.</p> <p>&quot;Until now there has been little analysis of the impact that travel and cross border expenditure between cities has on the economies of prospering markets and historically more developed nations. The Index offers an analysis of the powerful financial flows between existing commercial powerhouses and the emerging markets, and provides a revealing insight into how these relationships may develop in the future,” said Mr. Cartwright.</p> <p></p> Asia/Pacific Performance <p>Within the Asia/Pacific region Sydney again features predominantly in terms of visitor expenditure, ranking second only to Bangkok (US$14.4 billion). The other Australian city included in the Index, Melbourne, ranks eighth ahead of regional business hubs Kuala Lumpur (US$6 billion) and Shanghai (US$6 billion).</p> <p>In terms of growth rates of visitor expenditures in the Asia/Pacific region, both Australian cities feature in the top ten, with Sydney in tenth position at 12.1% and Melbourne in seventh position at 19% (table 2).</p> <p>&quot;As the global economic centre continues to shift and with visitor arrivals and expenditure on arrival continuing to increase, the Asia/Pacific region is continuing to emerge as an integral area for the future of global commerce,” said Mr. Cartwright.</p> <p></p> Additional Global Highlights<p><b><u>London tops Index with over 20 million inbound travellers</u></b><br> Overall London topped the Index with 20.1 million inbound passengers expected in 2011, due to Heathrow’s role as a key international airport and transfer hub and the low interest rates which are attracting tourists and encouraging businesses to invest in the city. Paris is second with 18.1 million, followed by Bangkok, Singapore and Hong Kong.</p> <p><b><u>London ranks first on cross-border expenditure</u></b><br> New York is in second place with Paris in third. Estimated expenditures in these cities for 2011 amounted to US$25.6 billion, US$20.3 billion and US$14.6 billion respectively. Bangkok ranks fourth with visitor expenditures estimated at US$14.4 billion, followed by Frankfurt in fifth rank with US$14 billion.</p> <p></p> Table 1: Top 10 Destination Cities by International Visitor Expenditure in 2011<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="580"> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description"><b>Destination Cities</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>2011 Rank</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>2011 Visitor Expenditure</b></th> </tr><tr><td>London</td> <td>1</td> <td>US$25.6 billion,</td> </tr><tr><td>New York</td> <td>2</td> <td>US$20.3 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Paris</td> <td>3</td> <td>US$14.6 billion,</td> </tr><tr><td>Bangkok</td> <td>4</td> <td>US$14.4 billion,</td> </tr><tr><td>Frankfurt</td> <td>5</td> <td>US$14 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Sydney</td> <td>6</td> <td>US$13.8 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Los Angeles</td> <td>7</td> <td>US$12.5 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Madrid</td> <td>8</td> <td>US$11.8 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Singapore</td> <td>9</td> <td>US$10.8 billion</td> </tr><tr><td>Hong Kong</td> <td>10</td> <td>US$10.4 billion</td> </tr></tbody></table> Table 2: Growth Rates of Visitor Expenditures in Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific in 2011<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="580"> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description"><b>Destination Cities</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>2011 Rank</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>2010 to 2011 Growth Rate</b></th> </tr><tr><td>Kuala Lumpur</td> <td>9</td> <td>31.0%</td> </tr><tr><td>Shanghai</td> <td>10</td> <td>24.3%</td> </tr><tr><td>Singapore</td> <td>3</td> <td>23.9%</td> </tr><tr><td>Hong Kong</td> <td>4</td> <td>23.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>Tokyo</td> <td>6</td> <td>20.8%</td> </tr><tr><td>Taipei</td> <td>7</td> <td>20.3%</td> </tr><tr><td>Melbourne</td> <td>8</td> <td>19.0%</td> </tr><tr><td>Seoul</td> <td>5</td> <td>18.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>Bangkok</td> <td>1</td> <td>18.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>Sydney</td> <td>2</td> <td>12.1%</td> </tr></tbody></table> Methodology<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities. Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year.</p> <p>For every city pair, data from the UN World Tourism Organization that document on an annual basis total numbers of outbound air passengers that travel between the two respective countries are used to create a &quot;ratio” of outbound versus inbound air passengers between two countries.</p> <p>A margin of error is unavoidable in this calculation as not every outbound passenger would return as in the case of immigration, and not all return in the same year.</p> <p>On a country level, the UN Database of &quot;Trade in Service” in the &quot;Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included). An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas.</p> <p>A margin of error is also unavoidable in such estimates, as not all outbound trips are of equal length, and the cost of living varies a great deal between arrival cities such that even if each trip of equal length, expenditure per passenger between different arrival cities would still be very different.</p> <p>This margin of error is reduced significantly by imposing a minimum of expenditures in the algorithm, after a number of iterative testing (US$500 per trip for bordering arrival country and US$700 per trip for non-bordering arrival country).</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/spening-powerhouse-sydney-sixth-in-global-index2011-06-01T16:00:00.000Z2011-06-01T16:00:00.000ZBusiness, Leisure Travelers Unfazed by Economic Uncertainty: MasterCard Survey Georgette Tan, Vasundhara SubrahmanianLooking Towards the Next 12 Months<p>Overall, a majority of respondents are likely to travel for business the same as or more than in the past 12 months. Out of the Asia/Pacific markets, South Korea (27%), Singapore (23%) and Hong Kong (19%) display significantly higher propensity to travel more for business in the next 12 months.</p> <p>The same applies for leisure travel, with a majority of respondents looking to travel the same as or more than in the past 12 months. For markets in the Asia/Pacific region, South Korea (40%) and Australia (32%) show highest interest to travel more for leisure over the coming year.</p> <p>Other key findings from the survey include:</p> <ul> <li>Alongside New Zealand, which also saw an earthquake earlier this year, Japan showed the lowest intention to travel more - either for leisure or business purposes - among more developed nations in Asia/Pacific.</li> <li>International business trips are scarce in India and Indonesia, with less than 2% of the respondents there having made any international business trips in the past 12 months.</li> <li>South Koreans, Taiwanese, and Thais are relatively more skewed to making domestic leisure trips, with more than 80% of their respondents said to have made at least one domestic leisure trip in the past 12 months.</li> <li>Domestic leisure travelers in Taiwan travel most frequently with nearly half of them (44%) having travelled more than 3 trips in past 12 months.</li> </ul> <p>For the full report go to: <a href="http://www.masterintelligence.com/"><b>www.masterintelligence.com</b></a></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties Asia/Pacific, Middle East & Africa<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping, Index of Financial Literacy, and the Index of Global Destination Cities. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending and a series on Consumer Purchasing Priorities (covering Travel, Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education, Money Management, Luxury and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.&nbsp;</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The MasterCard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities, released twice yearly, provides valuable insights into consumers’ discretionary spending priorities for the six months ahead. The latest survey was conducted from 15 March to 27 April 2011 and involved 10,374 consumers from 14 markets.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/business-leisure-travelers-unfazed-by-economic-uncertainty2011-07-31T16:00:00.000Z2011-07-31T16:00:00.000ZStrong Aussie Dollar Influences One in Four Travel Plans Julia RoganMasterCard Research: Soaring Dollar Spurs Aussies to Travel Further <p><b><i>Sydney, 3 August 2011:</i></b> The strength of the Australian dollar compared to other currencies is boosting Australians’ ability and desire to travel further, according to the findings from the latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities - Travel.</p> <p>The annual research, which was conducted from March to April 2011 and involved 647 Australians, highlights the continued strength of the Australian dollar in influencing consumers’ decision to travel overseas. The findings reveal the continuing extent of the currency influence; with one in four (25%) respondents stating that they would not have made plans to travel overseas this year if the exchange rate was not as favourable. <i>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</i></p> <p><i></i>MasterCard Australia Country Manager, Andrew Cartwright said: “The tourism industry in Australia has had a difficult start to 2011 – with the natural disasters in the first three months of the year and the knock-on implications on holiday numbers in the hardest hit areas.</p> <p>“These occurrences, alongside the strength of the dollar, have meant that many Australian travellers are looking overseas for their holiday destinations – a trend which is impacting heavily on the domestic tourism sector as highlighted in the findings of the Tourism and Transport Forum/MasterCard survey<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>, issued last month.”</p> <p>The strong Australian Dollar could also be impacting Australians’ travel plans over the next 12 months – with almost a third (32%) intent on travelling more frequently for leisure purposes in 2012.</p> <p><i><a name="1"></a>[1] Quarter 2, TTF – MasterCard Tourism Sentiment Survey&nbsp;</i></p> <p></p> Destination Hotspots <p>The favourable exchange rate between the Australian and American dollars has made the USA the most popular destination for Australian tourists, with close to one in four (22%) intent on holidaying in the States during the year. </p> <p>With the Australian dollar continuing to increase in value against the Euro and British Pound in particular, holidaymakers have identified several European countries as destination hotspots.</p> <p>The United Kingdom tops the European destination list with close to one in five (18%) Australians planning to travel to the UK this year closely followed by France (12%), with Germany and Italy both on 10%.</p> <p>New Zealand remains a prime location for holidaymakers due to its close proximity to Australia and relatively short flight time – nearly one in five (19%) intend to travel to the country at some point during the year. &nbsp;</p> <p></p> Holiday Spending <p>The research also highlights that the majority of Australians save for their holidays throughout the course of the year (67%), but one in six (16%) plan holidays when they need them and pay with either a credit card or loan.</p> <p>Whilst on holiday Australian’s are also mindful of their finances&nbsp; – with 21% opting to stay with friends and family and 16% staying in budget accommodation – only one in ten (11%) stay in luxury or five-star hotels.</p> <p>When it comes to booking accommodation or transport for holidays, Australians recognise the benefit of booking with credit and debit cards – 58% book accommodation and 53% book airline travel with their credit cards.</p> <p></p> Australia - Popular with International Travellers <p>Whilst the research indicates Australians’ plan to travel abroad this year, it is not all doom and gloom for the domestic tourism industry, which will be boosted by the expected arrival of international tourists who plan to spend $13.8 billion in Sydney and $7.5 billion in Melbourne during 2011[1].</p> <p>Andrew Cartwright adds: “It is clear that many Australians intend to take advantage of the favourable exchange rate and head to Europe or the USA this year. What is encouraging is that despite the exchange rate making a visit to Australia more expensive, international tourists are still intent on travelling here, which will be a real boost for our domestic tourism sector at a time when it is really needed.”</p> <p>For the full report go to: <a href="http://www.masterintelligence.com/"><b>www.masterintelligence.com</b></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties Asia/Pacific, Middle East & Africa<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel was conducted from March to April 2011 and involved 647 Australianshttp://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/strong-aussie-dollar-influences-one-in-four-travel-plans2011-08-02T16:00:00.000Z2011-08-02T16:00:00.000ZChinese Cities Expecting to See Growth in Visitor Arrivals and Expenditure: New MasterCard Index Georgette TanBeijing, Shanghai Rank among Top Three Cities in Asia/Pacific Region by Visitor Growth<p><b><i>Beijing</i></b><b><i>, </i></b><b><i>9 June,</i></b><b><i> 2011: </i></b>Beijing and Shanghai, already leading global and regional destination cities, will see their number of visitors grow significantly in 2011, according to MasterCard Worldwide’s Index of Global Destination Cities.</p> <p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities ranks 132 selected cities around the world by their total international visitor arrivals, along with their cross-border spending in those cities. The Index offers a different approach to understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce around the world.</p> <p>Among the global top 20 destination cities by visitor arrivals, London tops the world’s cities with 20.1 million inbound passengers expected in 2011, ahead of Paris in second place with 18.1 million and Bangkok in third with 11.5 million. Shanghai ranks No. 18 with 5.5 million visitors. Growth rates of visitor arrivals for the top 20 destination cities in 2011 show Shanghai to rank No. 4 at 18.6%.&nbsp; Among the top 10 destination cities in the Asia/Pacific region, Bangkok ranks No.1, while Shanghai and Beijing rank No. 6 and No. 9 respectively.</p> <p>According to the Index, in 2010 the overall total outbound air passenger departures and outbound expenditure grew by 9.2% and 14.6% year-on-year, respectively. This reflects a recovery in global tourism following the global economic crisis. Of all the top-ranked destination cities reviewed in the report, only three had a decline in visitor arrivals and two show declining visitor expenditures.</p> <p></p> Chinese cities show prominent visitor growth <p>Thirteen Chinese cities were included in the Index rankings of the 132 cities. Beijing and Shanghai rank second and third regionally in terms of visitor growth, with growth rates estimated at 20.2% and 18.6% respectively, reflecting their rising prominence as China’s most important destination cities.&nbsp; Shanghai also ranks No. 2 in the region for growth in visitor expenditure with 24.3%, second to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with 31.0%</p> <p></p> Hong Kong leads the Greater China region<p>The Index shows Hong Kong is still the most dynamic business and travel center in the Greater China region. Hong Kong ranks No. 5 among the global top 20 destination cities by international visitors, Shanghai ranks No. 18 and Taipei ranks No.19. Among the top 20 destination cities by visitor spending, only Hong Kong and Taipei are on the list, with rankings of No. 10 and No. 17 respectively.&nbsp; In terms of growth rates of visitor expenditures for the top 20 destination cities in 2011, Taipei and Hong Kong both have a growth rate of over 20%.</p> <p>Ling Hai, MasterCard Worldwide’s Division President for Greater China, said: “This kind of growth pattern suggests that destination cities in emerging markets like China will continue to grow in importance and play a much greater role in the global economy. MasterCard understands these travel growth trends and will continue to help build upon the profiles of these cities through programs that will increase the attractiveness of the travel experience into China.”</p> <p></p> Bangkok ahead among Asia/Pacific cities<p>The Index shows there are eight Asia/Pacific cities ranking among the global top 20 destination cities by visitor arrival and seven cities ranking among the global top 20 destination cities by international visitor spending. In terms of both visitor arrivals and international spending, Bangkok ranks No. 1, illustrating that it has become a mature international destination in Asia/Pacific. Singapore is second to Bangkok by visitor arrivals, followed by Hong Kong. By visitor expenditure, Singapore ranks No.3 and Hong Kong No. 4. Other Asia/Pacific cities ranking in the global top 20 destinations include Shanghai, Taipei, Tokyo, Seoul and Kuala Lumpur.</p> <p></p> Methodology <p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities.&nbsp; Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year. On a country level, the UN Database of “Trade in Service” in the “Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included).&nbsp; An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas.&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Graphics<p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart1top20destinations.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart1top20destinations.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table2growthrates.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table2growthrates.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart2top20destinations.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart2top20destinations.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart5top20.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart5top20.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table7growthrates.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table7growthrates.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart6top10.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/chart6top10.jpg"></a><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table8growthrates.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/table8growthrates.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/chinese-cities-expecting-to-see-growth-in-visitor-arrivals-and-expenditure2011-06-08T16:00:00.000Z2011-06-08T16:00:00.000ZLos Angeles’ Sunset Strip Lures Melbourne Travellers Julia RoganOutbound Travellers Expected to Spend US$585 million in the City of Angels<p><b><i>Melbourne, 5 September 2011: </i></b>With the Australian dollar reaching record highs against its US equivalent, Melburnians are seizing the opportunity to use local currency strength to their advantage by jetting overseas.</p> <p>In a result likely to raise eyebrows, Los Angeles has topped the list as the city of choice for Melburnians to head to and spend money against stiff competition from other international destinations.</p> <p>According to new research from the MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities,<i> </i>more than 1.6 million Australian travellers departing from Melbourne will spend in excess of US$2.6 billion across 10 cities in 2011.</p> <p>MasterCard Australia Country Manager, Andrew Cartwright said: “The Australian dollar is continuing to climb against the US dollar, reaching its highest level since it was floated in the 1970s.</p> <p>“This, combined with increasing competition and capacity amongst the airline industry on Australian – American routes, has ensured that Los Angeles is top choice for people flying from Melbourne looking to get the most value for their money.”</p> <p>“Despite the popularity of long haul European destinations, Melbourne holidaymakers are also taking short breaks to cities which are closer to home – with Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch in the top ten destinations – all of which are popular trips which can be reached with a short flight.”</p> <p>The research reveals that the top spending destinations for Australians are now a mixture of cities in Asia Pacific and the USA.</p> <p>While London remains the most popular destination on a global basis in terms of visitation and visitor spending, the city is now ranks outside of the top ten places to fly to for Australians.</p> <p>More than 104,000 people flying from Melbourne are predicted to visit Los Angeles this year and spend in excess of US$585 million dollars, according to the <i>MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities</i>.</p> <p>Los Angeles was closely followed by Auckland, New Zealand with 241,000 visitors from Melbourne expected to spend $425 million.</p> <p>Kuala Lumpur is third on the list with 297,000 visitors expected to spend US$334 million on travel, accommodation, dining and entertainment in the area during the course of the year.</p> <p>The figures come as MasterCard launched the <a href="http://cities.masterintelligence.com/"><b>cities.masterintelligence.com</b></a> website – which outlines visitor number and cross border expenditure in to and out of 132 cities across five regions.&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Destination Hotspots – Outbound Travel ex-Melbourne ranked by Spend<p>Cities in the top ten list are:</p> <ul> <li>Los Angeles,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 104,000 visitors,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$585 million</li> <li>Auckland, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 241,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$425 million. </li> <li>Kuala Lumpur, &nbsp; 297,000 visitors,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$334 million</li> <li>Bangkok, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 176,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$274 million</li> <li>Singapore, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 258,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$230 million</li> <li>Hong Kong, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 184,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$216 million</li> <li>Denpasar, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 115,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$193 million</li> <li>Christchurch, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 92,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$160 million</li> <li>Wellington, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 58,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$103 million</li> <li>Doha, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 75,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$84 million&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p></p> Asia Pacific Cities – Significant Contribution to Melbourne Tourism <p>The research also reveals the holidaymakers and the cities where they originate who are visiting Melbourne in large numbers this year, as well as the amount of money that they are expected to invest in the Australian tourism sector.</p> <p>Five cities in the Asia Pacific region featured in the top ten for both inbound visitor numbers and visitor expenditure in Melbourne, with Hong Kong topping the list for the highest level of visitor expenditure – 168,000 visitors are expected to spend in excess of US$1.7 billion in the city in 2011.</p> <p>This is closely followed by Singapore with 416,000 visitors expected to spend US$1.39 billion and Bangkok with 83,000 visitors expected to spend US$837 million.&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Inbound Visitors to Melbourne and Expenditure Figures <ul> <li>Hong Kong, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 168,000 visitors,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$1.7 billion </li> <li>Singapore,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 416,000 visitors &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$1.39 billion </li> <li>Bangkok,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 83,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$837 million</li> <li>Kuala Lumpur, &nbsp; 105,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$704 million</li> <li>Auckland, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 294,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$555 million</li> <li>Dubai, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 105,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$459 million</li> <li>Shanghai, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 40,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$330 million</li> <li>Los Angeles, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 69,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$268 million</li> <li>Abu Dhabi, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 50,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$219 million</li> <li>Christchurch, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 57,000 visitors, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US$108 million</li> </ul> <p>Andrew Cartwright adds: “Whilst Australians are taking advantage of the competitive air fares and strong dollar, it is great to see that visitors from destination hotpots are reciprocating and visiting Melbourne in such large numbers. These visitors will provide a much needed cash injection for the domestic tourism industry following the natural disasters earlier in the year.”&nbsp;</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide <p>MasterCard (NYSE: MA) is a global payments and technology company.&nbsp; It operates the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce<b> </b>activities—such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances - easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Learn more at mastercard.com or follow us on Twitter @mastercardnews</p> Methodology<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities.&nbsp; Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year.</p> <p>For every city pair, data from the UN World Tourism Organization that document on an annual basis total numbers of outbound air passengers that travel between the two respective countries are used to create a “ratio” of outbound versus inbound air passengers between two countries.</p> <p>A margin of error is unavoidable in this calculation as not every outbound passenger would return as in the case of immigration, and not all return in the same year.</p> <p>On a country level, the UN Database of “Trade in Service” in the “Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included).&nbsp; An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas. </p> <p>A margin of error is also unavoidable in such estimates, as not all outbound trips are of equal length, and the cost of living varies a great deal between arrival cities such that even if each trip of equal length, expenditure per passenger between different arrival cities would still be very different. </p> <p>This margin of error is reduced significantly by imposing a minimum of expenditures in the algorithm, after a number of iterative testing (US$500 per trip for bordering arrival country and US$700 per trip for non-bordering arrival country). &nbsp;</p> <p></p> abuout mastercard worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/los-angeles-sunset-strip-lures-melbourne-travellers2011-09-04T16:00:00.000Z2011-09-04T16:00:00.000ZSingapore Sees Strong Growth in International Visitors’ Spending: New MasterCard Index Ashwin Seshadri, Zheng Fang Ting City-State to be Among Top Ten Global Destinations by Visitor Arrival Numbers and Expenditures in 2011 <p><b><i>Singapore, 1 June 2011: </i></b>A high volume of international visitor arrivals, coupled with significant visitor expenditures has placed Singapore among the world’s top ten destination cities on both counts, according to the MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities released today.</p> <p>The latest Index from MasterCard is a new approach to understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world. It examines 132 global cities across five continents by visitor arrival and cross border spending in the destination city, and gives growth forecasts for 2011.</p> <p>With an estimated 11.4 million visitor arrivals in 2011, the Index places Singapore second only to Bangkok (11.5 million) in the Asia-Pacific region. Overall, London topped the world’s cities by visitor numbers with 20.1 million inbound passengers expected in 2011, ahead of Paris in second with 18.1 million. Only one city in North America is in the top twenty, New York, which is ranked twelfth with 7.6 million inbound passengers expected. &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>While cities in Europe and the US still ranked highly in the MasterCard Index on Global Destination Cities, results point towards many emerging market cities that are showing robust growth with increases in both visitor arrival and cross-border expenditure, and growth rates exceeding 20% in several cities.</p> <p>Cities in Asia/Pacific led the charge globally having eight of the top twenty<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>cities by international arrivals, with Hong Kong (fifth with 10.9 million visitors) and Seoul (eleventh with 7.9 million visitors) among the other cities performing well. Asia also displayed strong visitor growth for 2011<b> </b>with Kuala Lumpur ranked second in the world with a 21.8% growth forecast, only behind Barcelona which led with an impressive 24.3%. Istanbul ranked third with 20.4%, followed by Shanghai (18.6%) and Hong Kong (17.4%). Singapore had a lower growth rate of visitor arrivals over 2010 with an expected increase of 14.5% this year.</p> <p>London also ranked highest globally on cross-border expenditure, ahead of New York in second place, and Paris in third. Estimated expenditures in these cities for 2011 amounted to US$25.6 billion, US$20.3 billion and US$14.6 billion respectively.</p> <p>Singapore performs strongly in this category as well, ranking ninth globally and third in Asia-Pacific with US$10.8 billion, behind Bangkok (US$ 14.4 million and fourth overall) and Sydney (US$ 13.8 billion and sixth overall). Visitor spending helped Hong Kong to tenth overall with US$10.4 billion and Seoul eleventh with US$10.2 billion.</p> <p>Overall, Asian cities dominate in terms of expenditure growth with seven of the top twenty high growth cities in the world heralding from the region. Kuala Lumpur tops this list as well, as<b> t</b>he Malaysian capital ranked number one in the region with an expected growth rate of 30.1%. Singapore (23.9%), Hong Kong (23.6%), Tokyo (20.8%) and Taipei (20.3%) follow behind.</p> <p>“Singapore’s status as one of Asia’s premier destinations for travelers from all over the world is confirmed by the findings of the new MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities,” said Ms Julienne Loh, vice president and country manager, Singapore, MasterCard Worldwide. “With a host of options for dining, entertainment and leisure, the city represents a high-value city destination for all types of travelers. Through this index we can now see that other cities in the region, such as Kuala Lumpur and Shanghai, are rising in popularity and Singapore must see this as an opportunity to maintain its attractiveness to travelers.”</p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1] <i>All estimates for Tokyo in this Index will be subject to change as the impacts of earthquake and tsunami evolve going forward. &nbsp;</i></p> <p></p> Additional Highlights<p><b>European capitals low on visitor growth</b></p> <p>Seven out of the top ten European capital cities – behind Amsterdam (ranked 3<sup>rd</sup>) – record visitor growth in the single digits percentages. By comparison, out of the top ten Asia/Pacific cities by visitor growth, none falls below 10%.&nbsp;</p> <p><b>Dubai – a destination on the rise</b></p> <p>While cities from the Middle East did not feature prominently on the list, the capital of the U.A.E. is ranked ninth in the world by visitor arrivals and eighteenth by expenditures, growing by 17.3% and 24.0% respectively.</p> <p><b>Chinese cities show prominent visitor growth</b></p> <p>Beijing and Shanghai are ranked second and third regionally in terms of visitor growth, with growth rates estimated at 20.2% and 18.6% respectively, reflecting their rising attraction as China’s most important destination cities.&nbsp; Shanghai also ranks second in the region for growth in visitor expenditures with 24.3%.</p> <p><b>Philippines boosted by Manila’s continued growth</b></p> <p>Manila is ranked 10<sup>th</sup> in the Asia/Pacific region with 3 million visitors for 2011, but the city is forecasted to grow significantly: it is ranked sixth in the region with visitor growth of 15.3%.</p> <p></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific by Visitor Arrivals <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="429" height="271" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations.jpg"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific by Visitor Expenditures <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations2.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="430" height="264" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations2.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> Methodology<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities.&nbsp; Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year.</p> <p>On any given flight there are visitors from the departure country, returning residents of the destination city after visiting the departure country, and a third group: non-residents connecting through the departure country to the destination city on their way to a second destination city. This group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, but very high for destination cities that are “hubs” such as Singapore, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt.</p> <p>On a country level, the UN Database of “Trade in Service” in the “Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included).&nbsp; An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas.&nbsp;</p> <p>A margin of error is also unavoidable in such estimates, as not all outbound trips are of equal length, and the cost of living varies a great between arrival cities such that even if each trip of equal length, expenditure per passenger between different arrival cities would still be very different.&nbsp;</p> <p>This margin of error is reduced significantly by imposing a minimum of expenditures in the algorithm, after a number of iterative testing (US$500 per trip for bordering arrival country and US$700 per trip for non-bordering arrival country).&nbsp;</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/singapore-sees-strong-growth-in-international-visitors-spending-new-mastercard-index2011-05-31T16:00:00.000Z2011-05-31T16:00:00.000ZTaipei Expecting Growth in International Arrivals and Expenditure: MasterCard Index Iris Lin, Mark Lai Research on 132 Destination Cities Reveals Year-on-Year Growth in International Visitor Arrivals and Expenditure Led by Asian Cities, with Taipei Ranking Highly on Both <p><b><i>Taipei, 1 Jun 2011: </i></b>The world’s most dynamic cities, including Taipei, are leading the global financial recovery through their connectivity and as destination cities for international visitors, according to the MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities released today.</p> <p>The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities is a new approach to understanding the global economy from the perspective of connectivity between global cities, especially in terms of international travel and cross-border expenditures.</p> <p>The Index ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2011. The Index shows total outbound air passenger departures and expenditures across 132 global cities grew by 9.2% and 14.6% year-on-year respectively, surpassing world GDP growth.</p> <p>Cities in Asia/Pacific account for eight of the top twenty<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>cities globally in terms of visitor arrivals by air with Bangkok ranked third, projected to have 11.5 million visitors this year, followed by Singapore with 11.4 million and Hong Kong with 10.9 million visitors.</p> <p>Overall, Taipei ranked 19<sup>th</sup> in the world in terms of international visitors with 5.4 million people expected this year, and 17<sup>th</sup> globally by cross border expenditure with inbound passengers spending $8.5 billion on their travels.</p> <p>However, the city features prominently as a high growth destination, ranking 7<sup>th</sup> in the world in terms of both its growth rates for international visitor arrivals (16.9%) and visitor expenditures (20.3%), showing its huge potential as a commercial hub and a global city.</p> <p><i><a name="1"></a>[1] All estimates for Tokyo in this report will be subject to change as the impacts of earthquake and tsunami evolve going forward. &nbsp;</i></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Greater China Region Boasts Visitor Growth<p>Beijing and Shanghai are ranked second and third in the Asia/ Pacific region, with visitor growth rates estimated at 20.2% and 18.6% respectively, reflecting their rising attraction as China’s most important destination cities. Overall, four out of the top five high growth Asia/Pacific destination cities by international arrivals herald from the Greater China region with Hong Kong ranked fourth with a growth rate of 17.4%.&nbsp;<i></i></p> Asian Cities’ to Experience Rise in Spending <p>Asian cities also ranked highly on visitor spending with Bangkok ranked fourth globally with US$14.4 billion<b> </b>expected to be spent by inbound passengers in 2011; Sydney ranked sixth with US$13.8 billion, Singapore ranked ninth US$10.8 billion and Hong Kong tenth with US$10.4 billion. The region dominated in terms of expenditure growth rates with Shanghai (24.3%), Singapore (23.9%), Hong Kong (23.6%) and Tokyo (20.8%) leading the charge.</p> <p>Julie Yang, Head of Taiwan, MasterCard Worldwide, said: “The solid growth in international arrivals and cross border spending in both business travel and tourism shows the huge potential of Taipei as a commercial hub and a global city. With its Top 20 ranking globally and double-digit growth forecasts, it is clearly a rising star among the world’s leading cities.”&nbsp;</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/taipei-expecting-growth-in-international-arrivals-and-expenditure2011-06-07T16:00:00.000Z2011-06-07T16:00:00.000ZAsian Cities Leading the Charge as Global Destinations: New MasterCard Index Georgette Tan, Robert O’BrienRegion’s Cities Record Strong Growth in Passenger Arrivals; International Visitor Expenditure Set to Jump by More Than 20% in Singapore, Tokyo, Hong Kong and Taipei<p><b><i>Singapore, 1 June 2011: </i></b>Destinations in Asia/Pacific are key players in the movement of the world economy in favor of emerging market cities, according to the MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities released today.</p> <p>The latest Index from MasterCard is a new approach to understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world. It ranks cities by their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2011.</p> <p>The Index results show that many emerging market cities are showing robust growth with increases in both visitor arrivals and cross-border expenditures, with many showing growth rates exceeding 20%.</p> <p>Cities in Asia/Pacific led the charge globally having eight of the top twenty<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>cities by international arrivals, with Bangkok ranked third, projected to have 11.5 million visitors this year, followed by Singapore in fourth rank with 11.4 million visitors and Hong Kong fifth with 10.9 million visitors. Asia also displayed strong visitor growth for 2011 with Kuala Lumpur ranked second in the world with a 21.8% growth forecast, only behind Barcelona which led with an impressive 24.3%. Istanbul ranked third with 20.4%, followed by Shanghai (18.6%) and Hong Kong (17.4%).</p> <p>The region also ranked highly on visitor spending with Bangkok ranked fourth globally with US$14.4 billion expected to be spent by inbound passengers in 2011; Sydney ranked sixth with US$13.8 billion, Singapore ranked ninth US$10.8 billion and Hong Kong tenth with US$10.4 billion. Asian cities dominate in terms of expenditure growth rates too, with seven of the top twenty high growth cities in the world heralding from the region, including Singapore (23.9%), Hong Kong (23.6%), Tokyo (20.8%) and Taipei (20.3%).</p> <p>“This kind of growth pattern strongly suggests that destination cities in emerging markets in Asia will continue to grow in importance,” observed Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong, global economic advisor, MasterCard Worldwide.</p> <p>Overall London topped the world’s cities by visitor numbers with 20.1 million inbound passengers expected in 2011, ahead of Paris in second with 18.1 million. Only one city in North America is in the top twenty, New York, which is ranked twelfth with 7.6 million inbound passengers expected. &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>London also ranked first on cross-border expenditure, ahead of New York in second place, and Paris in third. Estimated expenditures in these cities for 2011 amounted to US$25.6 billion, US$20.3 billion and US$14.6 billion respectively.</p> <p>While cities in Europe and the US still ranked highly in the MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities, Dr. Hedrick-Wong said that emerging market cities in Asia were shaping to play a much greater role in the global economy.</p> <p>“Growth of outbound travel and expenditures is clearly a resilient secular trend that will continue to shape the future of globalization,” he said.</p> <p>“As the global center of economic gravity shifts inexorably to the dynamic emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Africa, cities there will correspondingly play ever bigger roles in knitting the world together.”</p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1] <i>All figures for Tokyo estimated in this Index will be subject to change as the impacts of earthquake and tsunami evolve going forward.</i> &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Additional Highlights<p><b>Kuala Lumpur records huge spending growth</b></p> <p>The Malaysian capital is ranked number one in the region for growth in cross border visitor expenditure with an expected growth rate of 30.1%.</p> <p><b>Chinese cities show prominent visitor growth</b></p> <p>Beijing and Shanghai are ranked second and third regionally in terms of visitor growth, with growth rates estimated at 20.2% and 18.6% respectively, reflecting their rising attraction as China’s most important destination cities.&nbsp; Shanghai also ranks second in the region for growth in visitor expenditures with 24.3%.</p> <p><b>Philippines boosted by Manila’s continued growth</b></p> <p>Manila is ranked 10<sup>th</sup> in the Asia/Pacific region with 3 million visitors for 2011, but the city is forecasted to grow significantly: it is ranked sixth in the region with visitor growth of 15.3%.</p> <p></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific by Visitor Arrivals<p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="376" height="238" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> Top 10 Destination Cities in Asia/Pacific by Visitor Expenditures <p><a href="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations2.jpg" target="_blank"><img width="393" height="241" src="/content/dam/intelligence/content-assets/top10destinations2.jpg"></a></p> <p></p> Methodology<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities.&nbsp; Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year.</p> <p>On any given flight there are visitors from the departure country, returning residents of the destination city after visiting the departure country, and a third group: non-residents connecting through the departure country to the destination city on their way to a second destination city. This group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, but very high for destination cities that are “hubs” such as Singapore, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt.</p> <p>On a country level, the UN Database of “Trade in Service” in the “Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included).&nbsp; An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas. </p> <p>A margin of error is also unavoidable in such estimates, as not all outbound trips are of equal length, and the cost of living varies a great between arrival cities such that even if each trip of equal length, expenditure per passenger between different arrival cities would still be very different.&nbsp;</p> <p>This margin of error is reduced significantly by imposing a minimum of expenditures in the algorithm, after a number of iterative testing (US$500 per trip for bordering arrival country and US$700 per trip for non-bordering arrival country).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the inaugural edition of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2011/asian-cities-leading-the-charge-as-global-destinations2011-05-31T16:00:00.000Z2011-05-31T16:00:00.000ZHong Kong Tops Asia/Pacific Region for Leisure and Business Travel: MasterCard Survey Gloria Lai, Matthew Liu Hong Kong Tops Asia/Pacific Region for Leisure and Business Travel: MasterCard Survey<p><i>Majority Intend to Travel as Much or More Frequently Over the Next 12 months</i></p> <p><b><i>Hong Kong, 13 September 2012</i></b><i> </i>– While the summer holidays have only just passed, many Hongkongers already have their eyes on their next holiday in the coming year with top of mind destinations being China, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea and Singapore, a recent <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard Worldwide</b></a> survey reveals. They are also one of the most eager to travel in the next 12 months and the most frequent leisure and business travelers across 14 markets in Asia/Pacific.</p> <p>The latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel was conducted between April and June 2012 and involved 6,904 consumers in 14 markets in Asia/Pacific<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>. Data collection was via internet surveys, personal, telephone and Computer Aided Telephone interviews, with the questionnaire translated to the local language wherever appropriate and necessary. <i>The Index and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance.</i></p> <p>With Hongkongers’ thirst for travel, the city sees a strong outlook in both leisure and business travel compared to other markets in the coming 12 months. The majority (82%) plan to travel for leisure as much as or more frequently than last year, higher than the 2011 survey (74%). The same applies for business travel, with 66% looking to travel as much as or more frequently than last year, compared to 51% in 2011.</p> <p>In Asia/Pacific, Hongkongers ranked second and third respectively in their intention to travel for leisure and business as much as or more frequently than last year, behind China (leisure travel 85%, business travel 80%) which ranked first in both segments, but ahead of Taiwan (leisure travel 61%, business travel 60%) and the regional average (leisure travel 60%, business travel 45%).</p> <p>With their eagerness to travel, it’s no wonder passionate Hong Kong travelers top both the leisure and business travel mileage chart in the past 12 months in Asia/Pacific. Hong Kong leads the region with the highest percentage of leisure (85%) and business (51%) travelers who made international trips, ahead of China (leisure travel 67%, business travel 49%), Taiwan (leisure travel 53%, business travel 26%), and the regional average (leisure travel 42%, business travel 23%).</p> <p><b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/lhai/" target="_blank">Ling Hai, division president, Greater China, MasterCard Worldwide</a>,</b> said, “Hong Kong’s robust travel outlook is bolstered by an improvement in consumer sentiment as indicated in our latest <a href="http://bit.ly/OhuCXw" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard Worldwide Index™ of Consumer Confidence</b></a>, which earlier this year showed that optimism among locals has recovered from its second-lowest level since the financial crisis in 2008 to a neutral outlook with an overall score of 51.8 Index points. Local consumers are most optimistic in their outlook towards regular income (78.8 Index points), which may mean greater financial security and a rise in consumer spending.”</p> <p>&nbsp;“With China being one of Hongkongers’ favorite travel destination, MasterCard’s <a href="http://www.pricelessbeijing.com/" target="_blank"><b>Priceless Beijing</b></a> program launched earlier this year will delight cardholders from Hong Kong with one-of-a-kind experiences and privileged access to the very best that China’s capital city has to offer. ”</p> <ul> <li>Other findings about Hong Kong travelers include:Mobile phones top the list of Hong Kong people’s must-have gadgets when traveling</li> <li>Savvy Hongkongers reveal they get their best travel deals from travel agents, airline websites, online travel guides, and coupon sites or smartphone applications</li> <li>In terms of flight and accommodation, one in five prefer budget airlines while mid-range hotels remain the most popular, preferred by more than half of respondents</li> <li>While en route, four in 10 travelers will occupy themselves with watching movies or listening to music when traveling, and about one in five will usually read or rest</li> </ul> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><i><b>[1<a name="1"></a>]</b></i><i> Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam</i></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> Contacts:<p>Gloria Lai<br> (852) 2533 9983<br> <a href="mailto:glai@webershandwick.com" target="_blank">glai@webershandwick.com</a><br> <br> Matthew Liu<br> (852) 2533 9927<br> <a href="mailto:mliu@webershandwick.com" target="_blank">mliu@webershandwick.com</a></p> According to findings from the latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel, respondents from Mainland China expressed their desire to travel as much or more regularly in the coming year, both for leisure (85%) and business (80%). http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/hong-kong-tops-asia-pacific-region-for-leisure-and-business-travel-mastercard-survey2012-09-12T16:00:00.000Z2012-09-12T16:00:00.000ZBusiness and Leisure Travel in China Poised for Further Growth: MasterCard Survey Huanyu Wu, Tang Fei Over 80% of Respondents in Mainland China Plan to Travel as Much or More Frequently in the Next 12 Months<p><b><i>Beijing, September 1</i></b><b><i>8</i></b><b><i>, 201</i></b><b><i>2</i></b> – According to findings from the latest <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank">MasterCard</a> </b>survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel, respondents from Mainland China expressed their desire to travel as much or more regularly in the coming year, both for leisure (85%) and business (80%).&nbsp;</p> <p>Across Greater China, Mainland Chinese consumers demonstrate a discernibly higher likelihood of travelling as much as or more frequently than before, compared with Hong Kong (82% for leisure; 66% for business) and Taiwan (61% for leisure; 60% for business) consumers.&nbsp;</p> <p>The latest survey, which was conducted from the end of April to early June, 2012, involved 11,376 consumers from 25 markets<a name="_Ref304300966"></a><sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>. Data was collected via online surveys, face-to-face, and Computer Assisted Telephone interviews, with the questionnaire translated to the local language wherever appropriate and necessary. <i>The Index and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance</i></p> <p><i></i>According to the survey, international travel among Chinese consumers has become&nbsp;&nbsp; prevalent: 67% of respondents traveled overseas in the past 12 months for leisure, and 49% traveled abroad for business purposes. The survey also revealed that most respondents in Mainland China made at least one trip in the last 12 months, with 95% having traveled domestically for leisure and 74% for business domestically.</p> <p>Airlines remained the preferred mode of transport (77%) for those traveling domestically. When traveling by plane, more than 80% of respondents opted to fly with national airlines, while only 25% travelled by international carriers and 16% by budget carriers.&nbsp;</p> <p>Interestingly, 51% of the respondents made domestic trips by car versus 31% last year, perhaps reflecting the growing popularity of Free-Independent-Travelers (FIT) amongst the Chinese.</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><i><b><a name="1"></a><a name="1"></a>[1]</b></i><i> Asia-Pacific: Australia, New Zealand, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam</i></p> <p><i>Middle East: Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates</i></p> <p><i>Africa: Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa</i></p> <p></p> <p></p> Most Mainland Chinese Prefer Using Credit Cards to Pay for Travel Expenses<p>Overall, respondents in Mainland China said they prefer to use credit cards over cash and debit or ATM cards when paying for accommodation (69%), transportation (56%) and other expenses over US$100 (72%). On the other hand, when making purchases below US$100, respondents demonstrated an equal likelihood of using credit card and cash.&nbsp; This is a far cry from a year ago, where most consumers from Mainland China used cash when travelling. 69% of travelers, for example, now pay for accommodation with credit cards, up from 32% last year; while 56% pay for transportation with credit cards compared with just 20% last year.</p> <p>According to the survey, respondents in the 30-44 years age group are likely to use credit cards more frequently than younger consumers in the 18-24 years age group when traveling. For instance, 79% of respondents from the 30-44 years age group paid for accommodation with credit cards, compared with 31% of respondents from the younger age group.</p> <p>“It is no surprise that more Chinese consumers are traveling domestically or heading overseas for vacation, but along with this trend, we are also seeing a paradigm shift in the spending habits of Chinese travelers, who now prefer using credit cards for its added security and convenience,” said <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/lhai/" target="_blank"><b>Ling Hai</b></a>, Division President, Greater China,&nbsp; MasterCard Worldwide.&nbsp; “To address this growing trend, MasterCard has introduced a host of travel products such as dual-currency credit cards and the Travelex Cash Passport designed with the Chinese traveler in mind.”&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Japan Ranks among the Top Three Destinations by Respondents across Greater China <p>Travel between markets in the Greater China region remains strong, with Hong Kong and Taiwanese travelers favoring Mainland China as a choice travel destination. Neighboring Japan was rated among the top three destinations by respondents throughout Greater China.</p> <p>Also topping the list of popular international destinations for Mainland Chinese travelers are Hong Kong, Australia, France and South Korea, while the domestic destinations most favored by the Chinese are Chengdu and Guilin.</p> <p></p> Most Popular Destinations for Mainland Chinese Travelers<table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description"><b><br type="_moz"> </b></th> <th class="table-description" colspan="2"><b>International (%)</b></th> <th class="table-description" colspan="2"><b>Domestic (%)</b></th> </tr><tr><th class="table-description"><b><br type="_moz"> </b></th> <th class="table-description" colspan="4">Base (n=739)</th> </tr><tr><td><b>1</b></td> <td>Hong Kong</td> <td>60</td> <td>Chengdu</td> <td>31</td> </tr><tr><td><b>2</b></td> <td>Australia</td> <td>45</td> <td>Guilin</td> <td>26</td> </tr><tr><td><b>3</b></td> <td>Japan</td> <td>42</td> <td>Dali</td> <td>25</td> </tr><tr><td><b>4</b></td> <td>France</td> <td>35</td> <td>Chongqing</td> <td>22</td> </tr><tr><td><b>5</b></td> <td>South Korea</td> <td>33</td> <td>Hangzhou</td> <td>21</td> </tr><tr><td><b>6</b></td> <td>Singapore</td> <td>31</td> <td>Sanya</td> <td>19</td> </tr><tr><td><b>7</b></td> <td>USA</td> <td>31</td> <td>Lijiang</td> <td>18</td> </tr><tr><td><b>8</b></td> <td>Taiwan</td> <td>29</td> <td>Dalian</td> <td>17</td> </tr><tr><td><b>9</b></td> <td>Germany</td> <td>22</td> <td>Haikou</td> <td>15</td> </tr></tbody></table> Items Purchased at Airports<p>Over 90% of Mainland Chinese consumers traveling by air said they shopped at airport duty-free shops. The top five products purchased at airports are food and drinks (67%), cosmetics and personal care goods (61%), luxury goods (45%), books and magazines (42%) and electronic items (37%).</p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><b><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank">MasterCard</a></b> (NYSE: MA), <b><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank">www.mastercard.com</a></b>, is a global payments and technology company. It operates the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <b><a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank">@mastercardnews</a></b>, join the conversation on <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank">Cashless Conversations Blog</a></b> and <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a> for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> <p>For more information on the latest MasterCard activities and promotions, log on to the official MasterCard Weibo site at:&nbsp; <a href="http://weibo.com/mastercardchina" target="_blank"><b>http://weibo.com/mastercardchina</b></a></p> <p></p> Contacts:<p>Huanyu Wu<br> MasterCard Worldwide<br> <a href="mailto:huanyu_wu@mastercard.com">huanyu_wu@mastercard.com</a><br> (86-10) 8519 9304<br> <br type="_moz"> Tang Fei<br> Weber Shandwick Worldwide<br> <a href="mailto:ftang@webershandwick.com">ftang@webershandwick.com</a><br> (86-10) 8569-9979 / (86-10) 8569-9926<i></i></p> <p></p> According to findings from the latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel, respondents from Mainland China expressed their desire to travel as much or more regularly in the coming year, both for leisure (85%) and business (80%). http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/business-and-leisure-travel-in-china-poised-for-further-growth-mastercard-survey2012-09-17T16:00:00.000Z2012-09-17T16:00:00.000ZOne in Two Taiwanese Respondents Continue to Travel Abroad Despite Economic Uncertainty: MasterCard Survey Jonathan SeidmanNearly Half of Taiwanese Travelers Finance their Vacation with Money Saved Throughout the Year Majority Favor Using Credit Cards for Travel Expenses<p><b><i>Taipei</i></b><b><i>, </i></b><b><i>13</i></b><b><i> </i></b><b><i>Sep</i></b><b><i> 2012</i></b> – Over half of respondents (53%) in Taiwan made at least one international leisure trip in the past year, pointing to the importance of overseas travel amongst the Taiwanese. That's according to the results of the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a> survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel.</p> <p>For international leisure travel, Taiwan was ranked sixth out of 14 markets in the Asia/Pacific region, with Hong Kong topping the list at 85%. Singapore came in second at 72%, followed by Malaysia and China (tied at 67%).</p> <p>In terms of business travel, only 26% of respondents in Taiwan traveled internationally for business in the past 12 months, a 1% decline from the previous year. Though Hong Kong (51%) also saw a 1% decline in international business travel, it still tops the Asia/Pacific region for business travel. China (49%) ranks second, with a 3% increase from 2011, followed by Thailand (46%), Malaysia (41%) and Singapore (32%).</p> <p>In addition, the survey found that nearly half (49%) of Taiwanese travelers financed their trips with money saved throughout the year rather than using their bonuses, credit cards, through loans, or by using profits from investments, ahead of China (41%) in the Greater China region but behind Hong Kong (61%).</p> <p>&quot;According to the latest MasterCard Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel survey, over half of Taiwanese travel abroad for leisure purposes, demonstrating that overseas travel remains an essential recreational activity for the Taiwanese,&quot; said Julie Yang, head of Taiwan, MasterCard Worldwide.</p> <p>&quot;Observing these trends, MasterCard works to provide cardholders with a wide range of travel-related benefits and services, such as the <a href="http://www.pricelessbeijing.com/" target="_blank"><b>Priceless Beijing program</b></a> which seeks to enable cardholders to have <i>Priceless</i> experiences and privileged access to the very best the city has to offer, and the recent <a href="http://www.mastercard.com/hkc/personal/zh/promotions/HKIA/landing.html" target="_blank"><b>‘High Flyers Summer Treats’</b></a> promotion at the Hong Kong International Airport. At MasterCard, we are always looking for ways to reward cardholders with one-of-a-kind travel experiences.”</p> Other Findings<ul> <li>Credit card is the preferred payment method when traveling as opposed to cash. For expenses exceeding USD $100, 65% of Taiwanese used a credit card, compared to 61% the previous year. In terms of accommodation, mid-range hotels are the most popular amongst the Taiwanese.</li> <li>Cell phones are the top must-have gadget across all age groups, with 73% of Taiwanese bringing along their cell phones on their travels abroad.</li> <li>Car (69%) remains the preferred mode of transport for domestic trips, although those in the 18-24 years age group rely more on trains.</li> <li>The top international destinations for Taiwanese travelers are Japan (50%), China (37%) and Hong Kong (31%), while Kaohsiung (42%) and Taichung (37%) remain the top two most popular domestic destinations.</li> </ul> <p>The MasterCard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities, released twice yearly, is aimed at determining consumer spending priorities, including education, travel, dining and entertainment, financial management and expenditure of luxury goods across 14 markets in Asia Pacific. <i>The survey and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance.</i></p> <p>The latest MasterCard research is based on a survey conducted between 24 April 2012 and 10 June 2012 and involved 6904 respondents aged 18 – 64 in 14 Asia/Pacific[1] markets with 421 respondents in Taiwan, 409 in Hong Kong and 845 in China.</p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> <p></p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a> (NYSE: MA), <a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b> </b>is a global payments and technology company. It operates the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@mastercardnews</b></a><b>, </b>join the conversation on <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank">Cashless Conversations Blog</a></b> and <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a> for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> Contacts<p>Jonathan Seidman,<br> (886)2722-5799 Ext.124,<br> <a href="mailto:JSeidman1@webershandwick.com" target="_blank">JSeidman1@webershandwick.com</a></p> According to findings from the latest MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel, respondents from Mainland China expressed their desire to travel as much or more regularly in the coming year, both for leisure (85%) and business (80%). http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/one-in-two-taiwanese-respondents-continue-to-travel-abroad-despite-economic-uncertainty-mastercard-survey2012-09-12T16:00:00.000Z2012-09-12T16:00:00.000ZDubai Ranks Eighth in the World in Terms of Inbound International Visitors in 2012: MasterCard Index Abu Dhabi Emerges as World’s Fourth Fastest Growing Destination City by International Visitor Numbers<p><i>To tweet this news, copy and paste</i><b>&nbsp;</b><a href="http://bit.ly/KaNZi0" target="_blank"><b>http://bit.ly/KaNZi0</b></a> to your Twitter handle with the<b> </b><i>Hashtags #MasterCard and #DestinationCities</i></p> <p><b><i>Dubai, 13 June 2012: </i></b>The number of people travelling abroad continues to increase around the world despite a challenging economic environment, according to the second annual <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2012-2/" target="_blank"><b>Global Destination Cities Index</b></a> released by <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank">MasterCard Worldwide</a>.</b></p> <p><b>Dubai</b> features prominently on the Index, coming in eighth in terms of number of inbound international visitors and outranking cities such as <a href="http://www.mastercard.us/priceless-cities/newyork/" target="_blank"><b>New York</b></a>, Amsterdam, Kuala Lumpur, Shanghai and <a href="http://www.pricelessbeijing.com/content/priceless/china/en/cities/beijing.html" target="_blank"><b>Beijing</b></a>. <b>Abu Dhabi</b> emerges as the world’s fourth fastest growing destination city by visitor numbers, outstripping cities such as Istanbul, Singapore and <a href="http://www.mastercard.ca/priceless-cities/toronto" target="_blank"><b>Toronto</b></a> and is set to grow three and a half times faster than New York.</p> <p>The Index looks at the global economy from the perspective of connectivity between global cities, especially in terms of international air travel and cross-border spend, and aims to deepen understanding of the dynamic flow of global commerce.</p> <p><a href="http://insights.mastercard.com/author/yuwa-hedrick-wong" target="_blank"><b>Dr Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and author of the report comments: ‘‘In spite of a sluggish global economic climate, this year’s Index suggests that the overall travel and tourism picture is quite positive. We continue to see hotspots of strong growth around the globe, with major global destination cities attracting international visitor arrivals and expenditure and acting as important engines of growth.”</p> <p>Another interesting trend that we observe is a rise in cashless payments with many international travelers opting to do electronic transactions rather than using cash. The trend is a response to an increasing demand for safe, simple and smart payments, and highlights the rising importance of cashless commerce for both business and leisure travel.”</p> <p>Raghu Malhotra, Division President, Middle East and North Africa, MasterCard Worldwide said: “We are delighted to see that Dubai and Abu Dhabi have once again emerged as vital destination centers regionally and globally. The ease of doing business in the UAE as well as the country’s exciting offering of hotels, entertainment, shopping and sightseeing are some of the factors that are driving this influx of visitors. This is especially positive news for local businesses as it highlights strong opportunities for growth.<br> </p> <p>With 8.8 million international visitors expected in 2012, <b>Dubai</b> is the eighth most highly ranked destination city in the world, moving one spot higher compared to 2011 and marking a growth of 15.3%. In terms of the volume of international visitor spend, Dubai ranks 18<sup>th</sup> in the world with a projected US$ 8.8 billion visitor spend in 2012, an 18.5% growth over 2011.</p> <p><a href="http://www.mastercard.co.uk/priceless-cities/london/" target="_blank"><b>London</b></a>, Paris, Munich, Frankfurt and Kuwait are set to be the top origin cities for Dubai in terms of number of inbound passenger arrivals. London is the number one origin city for Dubai, with 803,000 visitors expected in 2012. Visitors from London are also the highest spenders in Dubai with US$1,495 spent per visit, compared to an average of just below US$900 by visitors from the other four top origin cities. However, the growth rates of visitors from Munich, Frankfurt and Paris are remarkably high at 29.5%, 22.1% and 20.2% respectively.</p> <p><b>Abu Dhabi</b> shines through as the world’s fourth fastest growing destination city by visitor numbers with a 17.9% spike expected in 2012, outstripping New York by more than three and a half times, and outperforming cities such as Istanbul, Singapore and Toronto. The UAE capital is also expected to draw an international visitor spend of US$2.6 billion in 2012, representing an increase of 20.7% compared to 2011.</p> <p>Overall, the total visitor numbers for the world’s top 20 destination cities in 2012 is estimated to be 184.9 million, representing an increase of 5.7%; cross border spend by these visitors is expected to be US$241 billion, up by 10.6% from last year.</p> <p><b>London</b> was crowned as the world’s top destination city for the second year in a row, with 16.9 million inbound passengers expected in 2012. Paris came in second (16.0 million), followed by Bangkok (12.2 million), Singapore (11.8 million) and Istanbul (11.6 million) in the top five ranking.</p> <p>London also stood first in terms of cross-border expenditure with a whopping US$21.1 billion anticipated in 2012. New York came in second (US$19.4 billion), followed by Bangkok (US$19.3 billion), Paris (US$17.8 billion) and Singapore (US$12.7 billion) in the top five ranking.</p> <p>The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks 132 cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2012. <i>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</i></p> Highlights from Key Regions: <ol> <li>According to the report, the regional outlook for the <b>Middle East and Africa</b> is bright, with visitor numbers for the top ten cities set to grow by 7.2%, total international spending predicted to rise by 10.4% and average spend per visit set to grow by 3%. Visitors will spend the most in Dubai which is also a fast growing city within the top ten for this region. Abu Dhabi will be the fastest growing in terms of spend, according to the report, up 20.7% this year. Looking at the full list of cities, Durban will be the fastest growing for the region in terms of visitor numbers and is predicted to be the second fastest growing city in our report.</li> <li>The outlook for<b> European </b>travel and expenditure<b> </b>is rosy for 2012. The top ten cities show a projected combined overall increase in visitor numbers of 2.8% and a rise of 8.1% in terms of projected total international spend. The average international spend per visit will rise for these European cities to $1,172, up 5.1% on last year.</li> <li>The <b>Asia/Pacific</b> regional story stands out as the real success story of the report, with total visitor numbers for the top ten cities predicted to grow by 9.5% and total international spending set to increase by a solid 15.3%. Average international spending per visit for these cities is set to increase to $1, 350, up 5.4% on the previous year. Bangkok claims the top slot in terms of visitor spend in the report and Tokyo, in sixth place, shows the fastest predicted spend growth, at 24.2%. Hot on its heels is Taipei, with a healthy predicted visitor spend growth of 20.5%.</li> <li>The growth figures for <b>Latin America</b> show real signs of positivity, with projected visitor numbers up by 7.3% for the top ten destination cities in the region and total international predictions for spend growth at 7.9%. Though there is set to be a lower average international spend per visit of $982, this is up by 0.6% on last year. Buenos Aires takes the number one slot in spend terms, whilst Quito and Bogota will be the fastest growing, says the report. Meanwhile, Recife will be the fastest growing regional city within our report in terms of visitor numbers, with impressive anticipated growth of 37.6%.</li> <li>The predicted growth in <b>North America</b> also looks healthy. Looking at the top ten cities, visitor numbers are set to swell by 4.1% and international spending to grow by 5.8%. Average spend per visit will also go up by 1.6% to an impressive $2,442, claims the report. New York will be the city where visitors will spend the most, up 6.8% on last year. There will also be increasing numbers of visitors flocking to the Big Apple, with visitor numbers set to grow by 5.2%.&nbsp; Dallas and Boston, though not in the top ten, will also show fast growth in terms of visitor spend, both predicted to go up by 13.6% on last year, as well as healthy increases in projected visitor numbers. Toronto, the fastest growing city in North America’s top ten, will also grow fast in terms of international visitor spend, with a projected increase of 10.2% on last year.</li> </ol> <p>For the full report go to: <a href="http://www.masterintelligence.com"><b>www.masterintelligence.com</b></a></p> Methodology<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index of Global Destination Cities is compiled using international flight and flight capacity information purchased from OAG Global, a provider of international aviation data. Flight schedules are also used for calculating flight frequency between pairs of cities.&nbsp; Airlines also publish on a regular basis their historical load factor, and advance flight schedules, which are then used to estimate the actual outbound passenger departures, and for forecasting outbound passenger departures in the coming year.</p> <p>On any given flight there are visitors from the departure country, returning residents of the destination city after visiting the departure country, and a third group: non-residents connecting through the departure country to the destination city on their way to a second destination city. This group can be a low proportion of the passengers for typically non-hub cities, but very high for destination cities that are “hubs” such as Singapore, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt.</p> <p>On a country level, the UN Database of “Trade in Service” in the “Travel Component” provides estimates of how much each year residents spend abroad (air fare paid in home country not included).&nbsp; An algorithm is applied to this total outbound expenditure and estimated total number of outbound passengers to derive an estimate of average per outbound passenger’s expenditure overseas.&nbsp;</p> <p>A margin of error is also unavoidable in such estimates, as not all outbound trips are of equal length, and the cost of living varies a great between arrival cities such that even if each trip of equal length, expenditure per passenger between different arrival cities would still be very different.&nbsp;</p> <p>This margin of error is reduced significantly by imposing a minimum of expenditures in the algorithm, after a number of iterative testing (US$500 per trip for bordering arrival country and US$700 per trip for non-bordering arrival country).&nbsp;</p> <p>Please note, the city rankings from the 2011 MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities are altered retrospectively as updates in data become available.</p> About Dr Yuwa Hedrick-Wong, Ph.D., Global Economic Advisor, MasterCard Worldwide<p>Dr Yuwa Hedrick-Wong is a business strategist and economist with 25 years of experience gained in over thirty countries. He was appointed Global Economic Advisor to MasterCard Worldwide in 2009.&nbsp; Prior to this role, he was Economic Advisor to MasterCard in Asia/Pacific, a position he held since 2001. As economic advisor, he chairs a MasterCard Knowledge Panel of leading economists, policy analysts, academics and business strategists for regular exchange and knowledge sharing.&nbsp; In 2007 he was appointed Advisor at Southern Capital Group, a private equity fund; and in 2008 he was appointed to the Investment Council of ICICI, India’s largest private bank.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Yuwa is also currently the HSBC Visiting Professor of International Business at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, and is a frequent speaker at numerous international high-profile conferences. </p> About MasterCard <p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The number of people travelling abroad continues to increase around the world despite a challenging economic environment, according to the second annual Global Destination Cities Index released by MasterCard Worldwide.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/dubai-ranks-eighth-in-the-world-in-terms-of-inbound-international-visitors-in-2012-mastercard-index2012-06-12T16:00:00.000Z2012-06-12T16:00:00.000Z79% of UAE Residents Planning Leisure Travel: MasterCard Survey Nadia EjazThe UAE Remains a Popular Destination for Travelers from Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and KSA<p>Dubai, UAE, 19 December 2012 – According to the latest findings of a <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a> survey, 79% of UAE residents are set to travel for leisure in the coming months, a 9% increase from the 2011 results. The survey also shows that 71% of residents plan to increase or maintain their levels of leisure travel when compared to the previous year, which is 6% higher than the 2011 findings.</p> <p>UAE residents indicated that they are most likely to travel to Asia-Pacific in the coming months, with 47% of respondents aiming to travel to these markets. Asia-Pacific remains the most popular destination for UAE travelers, though fewer UAE residents are planning trips to the region as compared to 2011 (55%). This is followed by Middle East &amp; Africa (43%) and Europe (10%) as the next most popular destinations. Interestingly, 3% more respondents are planning to travel within the Middle East than in 2011.</p> <p>In terms of international destination countries India led the pack once more, with 29% of UAE residents aiming to travel there in the coming months. The United Kingdom (10%) and Malaysia (10%) were also high on the list of destinations for UAE travelers. While Malaysia was also a key destination market in 2011, the United Kingdom did not feature in 2011’s top ten destination markets, marking a new trend.&nbsp; In terms of domestic travel, UAE respondents indicated that Fujairah (41%) remains a popular destination, followed by Abu Dhabi (39%) and Ras Al Khaimah (32%).&nbsp;</p> <p>With respect to inbound travel, the UAE continues to be a popular destination of choice for GCC residents. In Oman, of those inclined to travel internationally, 42% are likely to travel to the UAE in the near future, a substantial increase from 2011’s score of 35%.This is followed by Qatar (32%), Kuwait (20%) and KSA (13%), which also featured as top origin countries for the UAE in 2011.</p> <p>“It is encouraging to see that a great number of UAE residents plan to travel internationally in the coming months. This is a reflection of the market’s healthy consumer confidence levels, and certainly bodes well for the travel industry. At the same time, the UAE remains a very attractive destination for leisure travelers from around the globe. In fact, the recent MasterCard<b> </b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2012-2/" target="_blank"><b>Global Destination Cities Index</b></a> ranks Dubai 8<sup>th</sup> globally in terms of expected inbound international visitors in 2012, while Abu Dhabi is the world’s fourth fastest growing destination city by international visitor numbers,” said Eyad Al-Kourdi, UAE country manager, MasterCard Worldwide.</p> <p>Other UAE highlights:</p> <ul> <li>Over the last year, 79% of UAE respondents travelled internationally for leisure, while 50% travelled locally for vacation, marking an increase of 7% for international travel and a decrease of 7% for domestic travel as compared to 2010.</li> <li>With regard to business travel, 11% of UAE residents travelled abroad and 9% travelled domestically over the last year. Business travel has decreased since the last survey, when 21% of residents travelled internationally in the previous year, and 19% travelled locally.&nbsp;</li> <li>Among the respondents travelling by airlines, national airlines remained the most popular (47%), followed by budget carriers (37%) and international carriers (33%). Interestingly, budget carriers have seen an increase of 23% in popularity since 2011.</li> <li>UAE travelers were most likely to stay at luxury hotels (41%) during their business travels, while almost half (42%) of respondents preferred to stay with friends/relatives when travelling for leisure. Luxury hotels have witnessed a 22% increase in popularity for business trips since the last survey.&nbsp;</li> <li>UAE travelers enjoy shopping at airports, with 79% of residents indicating that they have purchased items at an airport during their travels in past months. Edible items (53%) and cosmetics/fragrances/personal care (26%) remain the most popular purchases at airports, followed by books/magazines (20%).</li> <li>UAE residents are keen to find the best travel deals, and indicated that airline websites (76%) are the most popular outlet to find a bargain. Travel agents (55%) remain popular for bargain-hunters, and some travelers also look for deals in newspapers (12%). Social media (7%) and coupon sites/apps (3%) lag behind when it comes to finding travel deals.</li> <li>Not surprisingly, 90% of UAE residents cite their mobile phone as their must-have travel gadget, while 9% won’t leave home without their laptop. One percent must have their MP3 device with them during their travels.</li> <li>Cash emerges as the most popular payment choice for UAE travellers in relation to expenses under US$ 100 (59%), transportation (50%) and accommodation (38%).&nbsp; Credit cards are the second most popular method of payment for UAE travellers in relation to the purchase of products over US$100 (41%), transportation (37%) and&nbsp;&nbsp; accommodation (34%). Debit/ATM cards are the least preferred by UAE travelers for all categories. It is worth noting that 11% fewer respondents prefer to pay for accommodation with cash as compared to the previous survey conducted a year ago.</li> </ul> <p>Middle East findings:</p> <ul> <li>Across the Middle East, consumers from Kuwait (82%) top the list when it comes to the percentage of consumers aiming to travel for leisure internationally in the coming months. They are followed by consumers in UAE (79%), Qatar (77%), Oman (52%), KSA (43%), Lebanon (19%) and Egypt (14%). Kuwait’s top ranking this year takes the place of Saudi Arabia’s position in 2011.</li> <li>Budget carriers have gained some presence in the Middle East in the last year, with the majority of consumers in Kuwait and Oman and substantial proportions in other markets using this mode of air travel in past months. National airlines were the most used airlines in the other Middle East countries surveyed.</li> <li>Purchases at airports remained popular in the region, with around 75% of Middle East air travelers making purchases in the last year. In general, edible items (45%), cosmetics/ fragrance (32%) and cigarettes/ tobacco (21%) are the most popular categories.</li> </ul> <p>The latest survey was conducted between April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>. Data collection was via internet surveys, personal, telephone and Computer Aided Telephone interviews, with the questionnaire translated to the local language wherever appropriate and necessary. <i>The Index and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance.</i><br> </p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1]<i> Australia, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates and Vietnam</i></p> <p></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties Asia/Pacific, Middle East & Africa <p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel was conducted between April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/79-of-uae-residents-planning-leisure-travel-mastercard-survey2012-12-18T16:00:00.000Z2012-12-18T16:00:00.000Z74% of Oman Residents Planning Leisure Travel: MasterCard Survey Nadia Ejaz, Jandré NieuwoudtMasterCard Survey Shows 14% Increase in Leisure Travel<p><i>Tweet this: #MasterCard survey shows 79% of #UAE residents set to #travel for leisure in coming months http://bit.ly/T5ZkVW</i><i></i></p> <p><b>Muscat, Oman, 19 December 2012</b> – According to the latest findings of a <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a><b><i> </i></b>survey, 74% of people residing in Oman are set to travel for leisure in the coming months, a 14% increase from the 2011 results. The survey also shows that 51% of residents plan to increase or maintain their levels of leisure travel when compared to the previous year, which is 10% higher than the 2011 findings.</p> <p>Participants living in Oman indicated that they are most likely to travel to Asia-Pacific in the coming months, with 81% of them aiming to travel to these markets, marking a 12% increase when compared to 2011. This is followed by Middle East &amp; Africa (46%) and Europe (7%) as the next most popular destinations.</p> <p>In terms of international destination countries, India and the UAE are leading the pack once more, with 42% of residents in Oman aiming to travel there in the coming months. Malaysia (11%) and Thailand (11%) were also high on the list of destinations for travelers. While Malaysia was also a key destination market in 2011, it has witnessed a drop of 8% in popularity in the latest survey.&nbsp; In terms of domestic travel, respondents living in Oman indicated that Salalah (50%) remains the most popular destination, followed by Sur (15%) and Nizwa (12%).&nbsp;</p> <p>“It is encouraging to see the increase in the amount of respondents planning to travel as compared to the 2011 survey. This is sure to be positive news for the country’s travel industry as it prepares for the upcoming travel season,” said Safdar Khan, country manager, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait, MasterCard Worldwide.</p> <p>Other Oman highlights:</p> <ul> <li>Over the last year, 52% of respondents residing in Oman travelled internationally for leisure, while 54% travelled locally for vacation, marking a decrease for both international (13%) and domestic (4%) travel as compared to 2010.</li> <li>With regard to business travel, 11% of residents travelled abroad and 13% travelled domestically over the last year. Business travel has decreased since the last survey, when 18% travelled internationally, and 22% travelled locally.&nbsp;</li> <li>Among the respondents travelling by airlines, budget carriers were the most popular (54%), followed by national airlines (39%) and international carriers (20%). Interestingly, budget carriers have seen a remarkable increase of 53% in popularity since 2011, when only 1% of respondents travelled on a budget carrier.</li> <li>These travelers were most likely to stay at mid-range hotels (35%) during their business travels, more than half (53%) of respondents preferred to stay with friends/relatives when travelling for leisure. Mid-range hotels have witnessed a 5% increase in popularity for business trips since the 2011 survey.&nbsp;</li> <li>Travelers residing in Oman enjoy shopping at airports, with 86% of residents indicating that they have purchased items at an airport during their travels in past months. Edible items (48%) and cosmetics/fragrances/personal care (20%) remain popular purchases at airports.</li> <li>Residents in Oman are keen to find the best travel deals, and indicated that travel agents (66%) are the most popular outlet to find a bargain. Airline websites (29%) remain popular for bargain-hunters, and some travelers also look for deals in newspapers (9%). Social media (9%) and online travel guides (5%) lag behind when it comes to finding travel deals.</li> <li>Not surprisingly, 89% of respondents cite their mobile phone as their must-have travel gadget, while 5% won’t leave home without their laptop. One percent must have their MP3 device with them during their travels.</li> <li>Cash emerges as the most popular payment choice for travelers residing in Oman in relation to transportation (87%), expenses under US$ 100 (70%) and accommodation (64%).&nbsp; Debit/ATM cards are the second most popular method of payment for the purchase of products over US$100 (35%), transportation (6%) and purchase of products under US$100 (20%). Credit cards are the least preferred by Oman travelers for almost all categories. It is worth noting that 20% fewer respondents prefer to pay for accommodation with cash as compared to the previous survey conducted a year ago.</li> </ul> <p>Middle East findings:</p> <ul> <li>Across the Middle East, consumers from Kuwait (82%) top the list when it comes to the percentage of consumers aiming to travel for leisure internationally in the coming months. They are followed by consumers in UAE (79%), Qatar (77%), Oman (52%), KSA (43%), Lebanon (19%) and Egypt (14%). Kuwait’s top ranking this year takes the place of Saudi Arabia’s position in 2011.</li> <li>Budget carriers have gained some presence in the Middle East in the last year, with the majority of consumers in Kuwait and Oman and substantial proportions in other markets using this mode of air travel in past months. National airlines were the most used airlines in the other Middle East countries surveyed.</li> <li>Purchases at airports remained popular in the region, with around 75% of Middle East air travelers making purchases in the last year. In general, edible items (45%), cosmetics/ fragrance (32%) and cigarettes/ tobacco (21%) are the most popular categories.</li> </ul> <p>The latest survey was conducted between April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>. Data collection was via internet surveys, personal, telephone and Computer Aided Telephone interviews, with the questionnaire translated to the local language wherever appropriate and necessary. <i>The Index and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance.</i><br> </p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1] <i>Australia, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates and Vietnam</i></p> <p></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties Asia/Pacific, Middle East & Africa <p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2012-2/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel was conducted between April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/74-of-oman-residents-planning-leisure-travel-mastercard-survey2012-12-18T16:00:00.000Z2012-12-18T16:00:00.000Z87% of Qatar Residents Planning Leisure Travel: MasterCard Survey Nadia Ejaz, Jandré NieuwoudtDomestic Travel Increases Significantly <p><b><i>Doha, Qatar, 19 December 2012</i></b> – According to the latest findings of a <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a> survey, 87% of people residing in Qatar are set to travel for leisure in the coming months, a 7% increase from the 2011 results. The survey also shows that 70% of residents plan to increase or maintain their levels of leisure travel when compared to the previous year, which is 19% higher than the 2011 findings.</p> <p>The country’s residents indicated that they are most likely to travel within the Middle East and Africa in the coming months, with 79% of respondents aiming to travel to these markets, marking a 17% increase when compared to 2011. This is followed by Asia (57%) as the next most popular destination. Interestingly, 14% more respondents are planning to travel to Asia in 2012 than in 2011.</p> <p>In terms of international destination countries, the UAE led the pack once more, with 32% of people living in Qatar aiming to travel there in the coming months. India (18%) and Egypt (16%) remained high on the list of destinations for the country’s travelers.&nbsp; In terms of domestic travel, respondents indicated that Al Khor (32%) remains a popular destination, followed by Al Wakrah (17%) and Dukhan (16%).&nbsp;</p> <p>“Residents in Qatar remain some of the most keen travelers in the Middle East,” said Safdar Khan, country manager, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait, MasterCard Worldwide. “While international travel for leisure continues to be popular in the market, we see significant growth in domestic travel this year, showing that residents are eager to explore Qatar’s fast-growing leisure and business offerings.”</p> <p>Other Qatar highlights:</p> <ul> <li>Over the last year, 77% of respondents in Qatar travelled internationally for leisure, while 84% travelled locally for vacation, marking a decrease of 1% for international travel and an increase of 63% for domestic travel as compared to 2011.</li> <li>With regard to business travel, 28% of residents travelled abroad and 27% travelled domestically over the last year. Business travel has increased since the last survey, when 9% of residents travelled internationally in the previous year, and 4% travelled locally.&nbsp;</li> <li>Among the respondents travelling by airlines, national airlines remained the most popular (43%), followed by international (40%) and budget (27 %) carriers.&nbsp; Interestingly, national airlines have seen a drop of 20% in popularity since 2011.</li> <li>These travelers were most likely to stay at mid-range hotels (38%) during their business travels, while almost a third (31%) of respondents preferred to stay in economy hotels when travelling for leisure. Mid-range hotels have witnessed a 14% increase in popularity for business trips since the last survey.&nbsp;</li> <li>Travelers residing in Qatar enjoy shopping at airports, with 82% of residents indicating that they have purchased items at an airport during their travels in past months.</li> <li>Cosmetics/fragrances/personal care (41%) and edible items (38%) remain the most popular purchases at airports.</li> <li>Respondents are also keen to find the best travel deals, and indicated that travel agents (63%) are the most popular outlet to find a bargain. Airline websites (55%) remain popular for bargain-hunters, and some travelers also look for deals in newspapers (21%). Social media (15%) and coupon sites/apps (9%) lag behind when it comes to finding travel deals.</li> <li>Not surprisingly, 88% of residents cite their mobile phone as their must-have travel gadget, while 8% won’t leave home without their laptop. Three percent must have their MP3 device with them during their travels.</li> <li>Cash emerges as the most popular payment choice for travelers residing in Qatar in relation to transportation (76%), expenses under US$ 100 (73%), and accommodation (70%).&nbsp; Debit/ ATM cards are the second most popular method of payment in relation to the purchase of products over US$100 (19%), transportation (16%) and accommodation (15%).</li> </ul> <p>Middle East findings:</p> <ul> <li>Across the Middle East, consumers from Kuwait (82%) top the list when it comes to the percentage of consumers aiming to travel for leisure internationally in the coming months. They are followed by consumers in UAE (79%), Qatar (77%), Oman (52%), KSA (43%), Lebanon (19%) and Egypt (14%). Kuwait’s top ranking this year takes the place of Saudi Arabia’s position in 2011.</li> <li>Budget carriers have gained some presence in the Middle East in the last year, with the majority of consumers in Kuwait and Oman and substantial proportions in other markets using this mode of air travel in past months. National airlines were the most used airlines in the other Middle East countries surveyed.</li> <li>Purchases at airports remained popular in the region, with around 75% of Middle East air travelers making purchases in the last year. In general, edible items (45%), cosmetics/ fragrance (32%) and cigarettes/ tobacco (21%) are the most popular categories.</li> </ul> <p>The latest survey was conducted between April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets<sup>[<a href="#1">1</a>]</sup>. Data collection was via internet surveys, personal, telephone and Computer Aided Telephone interviews, with the questionnaire translated to the local language wherever appropriate and necessary. <i>The Index and its accompanying reports do not represent MasterCard financial performance.</i><br> </p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><a name="1"></a>[1]<i> Australia, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates and Vietnam</i><br> </p> <p></p> <p></p> MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties Asia/Pacific, Middle East & Africa <p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2012-2/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard Worldwide<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> The MasterCard survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel was conducted from April and June 2012 with respondents aged 18 – 64 in 25 markets.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2012/87-of-qatar-residents-planning-leisure-travel-mastercard-survey2012-12-18T16:00:00.000Z2012-12-18T16:00:00.000ZSingapore Tops Dream Travel Destination for Myanmar Consumers: MasterCard Survey Georgette Tan, Alina MoraisAbout MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> Contacts<p>Georgette Tan,<br> MasterCard Worldwide,<br> <a href="mailto:georgette_tan@mastercard.com">georgette_tan@mastercard.com</a>,<br> +65 6390 5971</p> <p>Alina Morais,<br> Weber Shandwick Worldwide,<br> <a href="mailto:amorais@webershandwick.com">amorais@webershandwick.com</a>,<br> +65 6825 8203</p> Singapore has topped a list of dream destination cities for Myanmar consumers, according to MasterCard Worldwide’s latest survey of Consumer Purchasing Priorities - Travel. http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/singapore-tops-dream-travel-destination-for-myanmar-consumers--m2013-03-10T16:00:00.000Z2013-03-10T16:00:00.000ZMasterCard Survey Reveals Australia as Top Spot for Singaporean Travelers Deborah Yeo, Erwin NahAbout the MasterCard Worldwide Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities provides valuable insights into consumers’ savings and expenditure behaviour and their discretionary spending priorities. In particular, the series covers Consumer Purchasing Priorities including Travel, Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education, Money Management, Luxury and General Shopping. The latest survey wave commissioned by MasterCard was conducted in Singapore from 7 November to 23 December 2012. The 455 respondents are Singapore residents between 18-64 years old owning a bank account. The results of this survey do not represent the financial performance of MasterCard.</p> About MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> For media enquiries<p>Deborah Yeo,<br> Weber Shandwick,<br> <a href="mailto:dyeo@webershandwick.com">dyeo@webershandwick.com</a>,<br> +65 6825 8083</p> <p></p> <p>Erwin Nah,<br> Weber Shandwick,<br> <a href="mailto:enah@webershandwick.com">enah@webershandwick.com</a></p> MasterCard Worldwide’s latest survey of Consumer Purchasing Priorities- Travel reveals that most Singaporeans favor Australia as their destination of choice, followed by Hong Kong and Japan.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/mastercard-survey-reveals-australia-as-top-spot-for-singaporean-2013-02-21T16:00:00.000Z2013-02-21T16:00:00.000ZIndonesians Tend To Holiday Closer to Home: MasterCard Survey Julianty Moeljono, Thoriq HuseinMasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Worldwide Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running MasterCard Worldwide Index of Consumer Confidence, as well as the&nbsp;MasterCard Worldwide Index of Women’s Advancement, Online Shopping,&nbsp;Index of Financial Literacy, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank"><b>Index of Global Destination Cities</b></a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including Ethical Spending&nbsp;and a series on&nbsp;Consumer Purchasing Priorities&nbsp;(covering&nbsp;Travel,&nbsp;Dining &amp; Entertainment, Education,&nbsp;Money Management,&nbsp;Luxury&nbsp;and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004.</p> <p>MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank"><b>Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</b></a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard Worldwide and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons.</p> About MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> Contacts<p>Julianty Moeljono,<br> MasterCard Worldwide,<br> <a href="mailto:julianty_moeljono@mastercard.com">julianty_moeljono@mastercard.com</a></p> <p></p> <p>Thoriq Husein,<br> Weber Shandwick,<br> <a href="mailto:thusein@webershandwick.com">thusein@webershandwick.com</a><br> +62 818 772 554</p> According to the latest MasterCard survey - Travel, most Indonesians prefer to spend their holiday domestically than to travel abroad. Denpasar topped the list of the most desired domestic destination.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/indonesians-tend-to-holiday-closer-to-home--mastercard-survey2013-04-08T16:00:00.000Z2013-04-08T16:00:00.000ZBangkok Peaks as World's Top Travel Hot Spot Georgette Tan, Vasundhara SubrahmanianRegion by Region Overview:<ul> <li>The rise of the Asia/Pacific region is reflected in this year’s index. Bangkok is the top ranked city in Asia which has the largest number of Destination Cities this year at 42.&nbsp; Of the 12 destination cities showing the fastest increase in air travel connectivity, all are located east and south of Istanbul.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p>Also notable is Tokyo which has shown a strong recovery in 2012, bouncing back to 20 percent from a severe contraction of 20 percent in 2011 as a result of the earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disasters.&nbsp; Tokyo is also gaining momentum in regional cross-border spending, moving up from seventh in arrivals in region to the third rank in spending. Two Australian cities, Sydney and Melbourne, appear in the top 10 in spending – ranking fifth and 10th, respectively.&nbsp; These trends are a reflection of the higher costs of living in these two cities as well as the tendency to stay longer when travelers visit these two cities.</p> <ul> <li>London continues to rank first in <b>Europe</b> in international visitor arrivals, followed by Paris, Istanbul, Barcelona, and Milan. Istanbul’s growth rates were such that it could well surpass Paris in 2016. The fastest growing city in Western Europe in air travel connectivity is Berlin, which ranks 17.&nbsp;</li> <li>Led by Mexico City, the lineup of the top 10 destination cities in <b>Latin America</b> remains unchanged.&nbsp; But this apparent stability masks rapidly changing growth dynamics when looking at the top five destination cities.&nbsp; Lima is gaining traction as the fastest-growing city, followed by Sao Paulo. If this growth trend continues, Sao Paulo could surpass Mexico City and Buenos Aires in 2017, and Lima could overtake Buenos Aires in 2018.&nbsp;</li> <li>If Istanbul is on the rise in Europe, its counterpart in the <b>Middle East and Africa</b> is Dubai which retains its number one rank in the region by a large margin.</li> <li>In <b>North America</b>, New York retains its top ranked destination city in the region, followed by Los Angeles and Miami. <b>Toronto comes in fourth overall</b> and is trending up as the fastest-growing air travel connectivity in North America.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p>The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2013.</p> <p>Public data are used in deriving the international visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Amsterdam and Frankfurt.</p> <p>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</p> About MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the third instalment of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/bangkok-peaks-as-worlds-top-travel-hot-spot2013-05-26T16:00:00.000Z2013-05-26T16:00:00.000ZDubai Seventh Most Popular Destination in World: MasterCard Index Sami Lahoud, Jandré NieuwoudtAbout MasterCard <p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate&nbsp;the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the third instalment of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/dubai-seventh-most-popular-destination-in-world-mastercard-index2013-05-28T16:00:00.000Z2013-05-28T16:00:00.000ZAsian Cities Dominate in the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index 2014 Region by Region Overview: <ul> <li><b>Europe:</b> London, Paris and Istanbul continue to represent Europe in the global top ten, as ranked by number of international overnight visitors.&nbsp; This year, 67 percent of London’s international visitors are from other European cities – a strong indication of Europe’s strengthening economy.&nbsp; Barcelona and Amsterdam represent the remaining regional leaders, with Amsterdam climbing one place to 12th overall on the global rankings.</li> <li><b>Latin America:</b> Lima built on its position as 2013’s fastest growing Top 10 Latin American city, retaining the top spot on the regional line-up.&nbsp; Punta Cana, a new entry to the list of cities covered, replaces Santiago in Dominican Republic and joins the list of top ten as the number four destination city for visitors this year, displacing Caracas.&nbsp; Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires, all mainstays on the rankings, round out the regional top five.</li> <li><b>Middle East and Africa:</b> Retaining its position as the top regional destination, Dubai is also one of the fastest growing cities in the global top ten, far outpacing other Middle East markets with nearly US$11 billion in visitor spending.&nbsp; If growth continues at current rates, Dubai would overtake Paris and Singapore to be the third leading global destination within five years.&nbsp; Riyadh, Johannesburg, Abu Dhabi and Cape Town wrap up the regional leaders.</li> <li><b>North America:</b>&nbsp; The region’s top destinations have been fairly consistent since the creation of the index.&nbsp; New York continues to pace the group, serving as the sole North American representative on the global top ten list.&nbsp; Also unchanged from 2013 are Los Angeles, Miami, Toronto and San Francisco’s position in the regional top five.&nbsp; Chicago is forecast to be the fastest growing city in North America, both in terms of visitors and international spend this year.</li> </ul> About the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index<p>The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2014.</p> <p>Public data are used in deriving the international visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Amsterdam and Frankfurt.</p> <p>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</p> About MasterCard <p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter&nbsp;<b><a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardAP" target="_blank">@MasterCardAP</a> </b>and<b> <a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardNews" target="_blank">@MasterCardNews</a>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Pioneers Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest news on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific" target="_blank"><b>Engagement Bureau</b></a>.</p> Media contacts:<p><b>Georgette Tan</b><br> MasterCard<br> <a href="mailto:georgette_tan@mastercard.com">georgette_tan@mastercard.com</a><br> +65 6390 5971</p> <p><b>Andrea Fang</b><br> Weber Shandwick<a href="mailto:afang@webershandwick.com"><br> afang@webershandwick.com</a><br> +65 6825 8030</p> The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2014. Public data are used in deriving the international visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2014/asian-cities-dominate2014-07-07T16:00:00.000Z2014-07-07T16:00:00.000ZJohannesburg Most Popular Destination in Africa– MasterCard Index MasterCard and its Suite of Research Properties<p>The MasterCard Index suite in Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa includes the long-running <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.ConsumerConfidence.tagend.html">MasterCard Index of Consumer Confidence</a>, as well as the <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.Women.tagend.html">MasterCard Index of Women’s Advancement</a>, <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.Shopping.tagend.html">MasterCard Survey on Online Shopping</a>, MasterCard Index of Financial Literacy, and the <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/digital-press-kits/mastercard-global-destination-cities-index-2013/" target="_blank">MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities</a>. In addition to the Indices, MasterCard’s research properties also include a range of consumer surveys including <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.EthicalSpending.tagend.html">Ethical Spending</a> and a series on Consumer Purchasing Priorities (covering <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.Travel.tagend.html">Travel</a>, <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.Dining.tagend.html">Dining &amp; Entertainment</a>, <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.Education.tagend.html">Education</a>, <a href="/content/intelligence/en/search.tagstart.MoneyManagement.tagend.html">Money Management</a>, Luxury and General Shopping).</p> <p>MasterCard also regularly releases Insights reports providing analysis of business dynamics, financial policies and regulatory activities in the Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa region. Over 80 Insights reports have been produced since 2004. MasterCard has also released a series of four books on Asian consumer insights, authored by <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/people/dyuwa/" target="_blank">Dr. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong</a>, Global Economic Advisor for MasterCard and published by John Wiley &amp; Sons</p> About MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a> (NYSE: MA), <a href="http://www.mastercard.com" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>, is a global payments and technology company. It operates the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/#!/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>, </b>join the discussion on the <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Conversations Blog</b></a> and <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a> for the latest <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>news</b></a>.</p> This is the third instalment of the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, which is used as a barometer for understanding the global economy and the dynamic flow of commerce across the world.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2013/johannesburg-most-popular-destination-in-africa2013-06-05T16:00:00.000Z2013-06-05T16:00:00.000ZAsian Cities Continue to Dominate the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Growth of the East: The resilience of Asian Destination Cities<p>The majority of visitors to cities in Asia originate from within Asia Pacific. This may help to explain the continued growth of visitor numbers over the last five years as European and North American markets experienced economic slowdown. The top five feeder cities to Bangkok, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur in 2015 are all in Asia Pacific. However, this shows the lack of diversity in the origin of visitors to many destinations in Asia, which presents risks to long term resilience to any global economic shocks. The challenge going forward for many of these otherwise very successful destination cities is to diversify their sources of visitors while maintaining their robust rates of growth. Nevertheless, globally, international overnight visitor numbers and their cross-border spending have consistently grown faster than world real GDP since 2009.</p> Intellectual Insights: Understanding What Drives Global Cities<p>In 2015, it is expected that nearly 383 million overnight trips will be made by international overnight visitors between the Index’s 132 cities. In combination with urbanization – the UN has estimated that two-thirds of the world’s population will live in cities by 2050 – this represents a massive demand for goods and services. By forecasting the number of international travelers, the Global Destination Cities Index helps to highlight the infrastructure needed to meet the expectations of both locals and visitors.</p> Infrastructure Innovation and Consumer Experiences<p>Major cities like London and Chicago are building open, interoperable transit systems facilitated by MasterCard contactless and mobile payments.&nbsp;The streamlined operations help support reinvestments in other infrastructure. A recent report by MasterCard and the Future Foundation found that people in India and China’s biggest cities felt local government could be doing more to make improvements to their city, including transport services, using new technology.</p> <p>MasterCard has also developed consumer marketing programs to support the significant role cities play as centers of human interaction. In fact, six of the top 10 Global Destination Cities are also <a href="https://www.priceless.com/" target="_blank">Priceless Cities</a>, a one-of-a-kind global platform that curates unique experiences, privileged event and attraction access, and special merchant offers.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p></p> Destination Cities: Spotting the Trends<p>Across the globe, a few key trends stand out, including:</p> <ul> <li><b>Europe – </b>Istanbul receives the most diverse visitors, with 50 percent of its inbound overnight visitors coming from 33 different cities.</li> <li><b>Latin America –</b> Lima is both the top destination and the fastest growing city in the region, featuring almost 50 percent more international overnight visitors than second-ranked Mexico City.</li> <li><b>Middle East and Africa – </b>Dubai continues to be one of the fastest growing cities in the global top ten while Abu Dhabi is the third fastest growing destination city overall between 2009 and 2015.&nbsp;</li> <li><b>North America –</b> Houston is the fastest growing in North America since 2009 and is the only destination city in North America with double-digit growth.</li> </ul> <p></p> About the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index<p>The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2015.</p> <p>Public data is used in deriving the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Dubai, Amsterdam and Frankfurt.</p> <p>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</p> <p></p> About MasterCard<p>MasterCard (NYSE: MA), <b><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank">www.mastercard.com</a></b>, is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter <b><a href="https://twitter.com/mastercardap" target="_blank">@MasterCardAP</a></b> and <b><a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardNews" target="_blank">@MasterCardNews</a></b>, join the discussion on the <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog/" target="_blank">Beyond the Transaction Blog</a></b> and <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe" target="_blank">subscribe</a></b> for the latest news on the <b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank">Engagement Bureau</a></b>.</p> The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2015. Public data is used in deriving the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Dubai, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2015/asian-cities-dominate2015-06-02T16:00:00.000Z2015-06-02T16:00:00.000ZMalaysia and Singapore Take the Top Spots in the MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index 2015 The Top 10 OIC destinations of GMTI 2015<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" border="1"> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;">Rank</th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;">Overall GMTI 2015 Rank</th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;">Destination</th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;">Score</th> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>1</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">1</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Malaysia</td> <td style="text-align: center;">83.8</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>2</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">2</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Turkey</td> <td style="text-align: center;">73.8</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>3</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">3</td> <td style="text-align: center;">United Arab Emirates</td> <td style="text-align: center;">72.1</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>4</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">4</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Saudi Arabia</td> <td style="text-align: center;">71.3</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>5</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">5</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Qatar</td> <td style="text-align: center;">68.2</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>6</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">6</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Indonesia</td> <td style="text-align: center;">67.5</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>7</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">7</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Oman</td> <td style="text-align: center;">66.7</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>8</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">8</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Jordan</td> <td style="text-align: center;">66.4</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>9</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">10</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Morocco</td> <td style="text-align: center;">64.4</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>10</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">11</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Brunei</td> <td style="text-align: center;">64.3</td> </tr></tbody></table> Top Top 10 non-OIC destinations of GMTI 2015<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" border="1"> <tbody><tr><th style="text-align: center;" class="table-description">Rank</th> <th style="text-align: center;" class="table-description">Overall GMTI 2015 Rank</th> <th style="text-align: center;" class="table-description">Destination</th> <th style="text-align: center;" class="table-description">Score</th> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>1</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">9</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Singapore</td> <td style="text-align: center;">65.1</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>2</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">20</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Thailand</td> <td style="text-align: center;">59.2</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>3</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">25</td> <td style="text-align: center;">United Kingdom</td> <td style="text-align: center;">55.0</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>4</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">30</td> <td style="text-align: center;">South Africa</td> <td style="text-align: center;">51.1</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>5</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">31</td> <td style="text-align: center;">France</td> <td style="text-align: center;">48.2</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>6</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">32</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Belgium</td> <td style="text-align: center;">47.5</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>7</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">33</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Hong Kong</td> <td style="text-align: center;">47.5</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>8</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">34</td> <td style="text-align: center;">USA</td> <td style="text-align: center;">47.3</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>9</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">35</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Spain</td> <td style="text-align: center;">46.5</td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>10</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;">36</td> <td style="text-align: center;">Taiwan</td> <td style="text-align: center;">46.2</td> </tr></tbody></table> <p>The full report is available <a href="http://gmti.crescentrating.com/mastercard-crescentrating-global-muslim-travel-index-2015-gmti2015.html." target="_blank">here.</a></p> Contacts<p>Anas Kasak<br> CrescentRating<br> Tel: +44 7971 735090<br> Email: <a href="mailto:anas@crescentrating.com">anas@crescentrating.com</a></p> <p></p> <p>Alina Morais<br> Weber Shandwick<br> Tel: +65 6825 8203<br> Email: <a href="mailto:amorais@webershandwick.com">amorais@webershandwick.com</a></p> The MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2015 looks at in-depth data covering 100 destinations, to create an overall index, based on a number of criteria which includes suitability as a family holiday destination, the level of services and facilities it provides, accommodation options, marketing initiatives as well as visitor arrivals. It provides travellers, Governments, travel services and investors comprehensive benchmarks across a number of important criteria enabling them to track the health and growth of this travel segment.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2015/Global-Muslim-Travel-Index-20152015-03-03T16:00:00.000Z2015-03-03T16:00:00.000ZMalaysia and Singapore retain top spots in the MasterCard-CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index 2016 The top 10 OIC destinations in the GMTI 2016<table> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description"><b>RANK</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>GMTI 2016 RANK</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>DESTINATION</b></th> <th class="table-description"><b>SCORE</b></th> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>1</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>1</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Malaysia</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>81.9</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>2</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>2</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>United Arab Emirates</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>74.7</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>3</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>3</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Turkey</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>73.9</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>4</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>4</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Indonesia</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>70.6</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>5</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>5</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Qatar</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>70.5</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>6</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>6</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Saudi Arabia</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>70.4</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>7</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>7</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Oman</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>70.3</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>8</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>9</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Morocco</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>68.3</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>9</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>10</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Jordan</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>65.4</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>10</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>11</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Bahrain</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>63.3</b></td> </tr></tbody></table> The top 10 non-OIC destinations in the GMTI 2016<table> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;"><b>RANK</b></th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;"><b>GMTI 2016 RANK</b></th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;"><b>DESTINATION</b></th> <th class="table-description" style="text-align: center;"><b>SCORE</b></th> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>1</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>8</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Singapore</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>68.4</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>2</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>20</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Thailand</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>59.5</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>3</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>21</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>United Kingdom</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>59.0</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>4</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>30</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>South Africa</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>53.1</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>5</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>31</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Hong Kong</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>53.0</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>6</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>31</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>France</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>51.6</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>7</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>33</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Taiwan</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>50.1</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>8</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>34</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Japan</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>49.1</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>9</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>35</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>Sri Lanka</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>49.0</b></td> </tr><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><b>10</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>36</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>United States</b></td> <td style="text-align: center;"><b>48.9</b></td> </tr></tbody></table> <p>The full report is available here: <a href="http://news.mstr.cd/1Ra1mnb" target="_blank">http://news.mstr.cd/1Ra1mnb</a></p> About the Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2016<p>First launched in 2015, the GMTI has now become the premier source in benchmarking destinations across the world on how they are engaging with one of the fastest-growing tourism sectors in the world – the Muslim travel market.</p> <p>While the GMTI 2015 covered 100 destinations, the 2016 Index has been expanded to include 130 destinations from across the world. The GMTI is not only of assistance to Muslim travelers but also helps the travel industry and investors to understand and keep track of the growth potential each destination has to offer.</p> <p>All 130 destinations in the GMTI were scored against a backdrop of criteria which included suitability as a family holiday destination, the level of services and facilities provided, accommodation options, marketing initiatives, air connectivity, as well as visitor arrivals. Each criteria was then weighted to make up the overall index score.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><b>END</b></p> <p></p> For further information and interview requests, please contact:<p>Anas Kasak<br> CrescentRating<br> Tel: +44 7971 735090 <br> Email: <a href="mailto:anas@crescentrating.com">anas@crescentrating.com</a></p> <p>Venture Liang<br> MasterCard<br> Tel: +65 6390 5973<br> Email: <a href="mailto:venture.liang@mastercard.com">venture.liang@mastercard.com</a></p> <p>Samantha Yong<br> Weber Shandwick<br> Tel: +65 6825 8053<br> Email: <a href="mailto:samyong@webershandwick.com">samyong@webershandwick.com</a></p> About CrescentRating Pte Ltd<p>CrescentRating is the world’s leading authority on halal-friendly travel. The company’s vision is to lead, innovate and drive this segment through practical and deliverable solutions in what is regarded today as one of the fastest growing segment in the tourism sector. The company uses insight, industry intelligence. lifestyle, behaviour and research on the needs of the Muslim traveller to deliver guidance on all aspects of halal-friendly travel to organisations across the globe.</p> <p>CrescentRating’s services now include rating &amp; accreditation, research &amp; consultancy, workshops &amp; training, ranking &amp; indices, event support/partnerships and content provisioning.</p> <p><b>Website:</b> <a href="http://www.crescentrating.com" target="_blank">http://www.crescentrating.com</a></p> <p><b>Twitter:</b> <a href="http://twitter.com/crescentrating" target="_blank">http://twitter.com/crescentrating</a></p> <p><b>LinkedIn:</b> <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/crescentrating" target="_blank">https://www.linkedin.com/company/crescentrating</a></p> <p></p> About MasterCard<p><a href="http://www.mastercard.com/index.html" target="_blank"><b>MasterCard</b></a>&nbsp;(NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>,<b>&nbsp;</b>is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 destinations and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardAP" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardAP</b></a><b> </b>and<b> </b><a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a><b>,&nbsp;</b>join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog" target="_blank"><b>Cashless Pioneers Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe/" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest news on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific" target="_blank"><b>Engagement Bureau</b></a>.</p> The MasterCard–CrescentRating Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) 2016, which covers 130 destinations, saw Malaysia keep its number one position on the list of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) destinations with the UAE moving up one spot to second place. Malaysia and Singapore have retained their positions as the top destinations in the global Muslim travel market, according to the most comprehensive research released on this the sector. Singapore also retained its pole position for the non-OIC destinations, with Thailand, the UK, South Africa and Hong Kong making up the top five.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2016/malaysia-singapore-top-spots2016-03-22T16:00:00.000Z2016-03-22T16:00:00.000ZBangkok claims top spot in MasterCard’s inaugural Asia Pacific Destinations Index (APDI) About the MasterCard Asia Pacific Destinations Index<p>The first MasterCard Asia Pacific Destinations Index is an offshoot of MasterCard’s annual Global Destination Cities Index.</p> <p>In recent years, Asia Pacific cities have increasingly dominated as the fastest growing and most visited destinations in the world. According to 2015’s MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, five of the ten most visited cities in the world were in Asia Pacific.</p> <p>The Asia Pacific Destinations Index takes a more in-depth, focused look at these tourism trends, ranking 167 destinations, including island resorts as well as towns and cities across the region, by total number of international overnight arrivals; cross-border spending; and the total number of nights spent at each destination. These 167 destinations are drawn from 22 countries across Asia Pacific and represent 90.1% of all international overnight arrivals within the region.</p> <p>Public data is used to derive the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the destinations, using custom-made algorithms.</p> <p>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.</p> <p></p> About MasterCard<p>MasterCard (NYSE: MA),&nbsp;<a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank"><b>www.mastercard.com</b></a>, is a technology company in the global payments industry. We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories. MasterCard’s products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone. Follow us on Twitter&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/mastercardap" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardAP</b></a>&nbsp;and<a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MasterCardNews</b></a>, join the discussion on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Beyond the Transaction Blog</b></a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a>&nbsp;for the latest news on the&nbsp;<a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>Engagement Bureau</b></a>.</p> Media Contacts<p>Georgette Tan, <br> MasterCard,&nbsp;<br> <a href="mailto:georgette_tan@mastercard.com">georgette_tan@mastercard.com</a>, <br> +65 6390 5971</p> <p>Georgina Mallory, <br> Weber Shandwick,&nbsp;<br> <a href="mailto:gmallory@webershandwick.com">gmallory@webershandwick.com</a>, <br> +65 6825 8026</p> <p>Samantha Yong, <br> Weber Shandwick,&nbsp;<br> <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/press-releases/bangkok-claims-top-spot-in-mastercards-inaugural-asia-pacific-destinations-index/samyong@webershandwick.com">samyong@webershandwick.com</a>, <br> +65 6825 8053</p> <p><i><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/press-releases/bangkok-claims-top-spot-in-mastercards-inaugural-asia-pacific-destinations-index/#_ftnref1"><a name="1"></a>[1]</a>&nbsp;There are no ties in rank as all apparent ties are due to one decimal rounding</i></p> <p><i><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/press-releases/bangkok-claims-top-spot-in-mastercards-inaugural-asia-pacific-destinations-index/#_ftnref2"><a name="2"></a>[2]</a>&nbsp;Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2014 – Asia Pacific”, World Tourism and Travel Council 2015</i></p> <p></p> The first MasterCard Asia Pacific Destinations Index is an offshoot of MasterCard’s annual Global Destination Cities Index. In recent years, Asia Pacific cities have increasingly dominated as the fastest growing and most visited destinations in the world. According to 2015’s MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, five of the ten most visited cities in the world were in Asia Pacific. The Asia Pacific Destinations Index takes a more in-depth, focused look at these tourism trends, ranking 167 destinations, including island resorts as well as towns and cities across the region, by total number of international overnight arrivals; cross-border spending; and the total number of nights spent at each destination. These 167 destinations are drawn from 22 countries across Asia Pacific and represent 90.1% of all international overnight arrivals within the region.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2016/bangkok-top-spot-apdi2016-01-26T16:00:00.000Z2016-01-26T16:00:00.000ZLatest Mastercard Report Forecasts Exponential Boom in Outbound Travel from Asia Pacific’s Emerging Markets Outbound travel growth versus real GDP growth<p>According to the study, outbound travel is forecast to grow faster than real GDP<sup><a href="#3">3</a></sup>. Outbound travel growth tends to be higher than real GDP growth for emerging markets compared to developed markets (except for Japan) where outbound travel growth is much closer to their forecasted real GDP growth. Emerging markets such as Myanmar (10.6 percent vs. 7.7 percent), Vietnam (9.5 percent vs. 6.2 percent), Indonesia (8.6 percent vs. 5.7 percent), Thailand (4.8 percent vs. 3.1 percent) and China (8.5 percent vs. 6 percent) are expected to grow faster than real GDP.</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> Growth of outbound travel in relation to total number of households<p>By 2021, all developed markets in Asia Pacific (except for Japan) will have a ratio of over 100 percent<sup><a href="#4">4</a></sup> for outbound travel trips to total number of households. Households in Singapore (693.6 percent), Hong Kong (248.9 percent) and Taiwan (232 percent) have the highest propensity to travel abroad.</p> <p></p> <p>Among emerging markets, Malaysia is expected to record the highest ratio of 198.7 percent by 2021, whereas India (7.3 percent), Bangladesh (7.4 percent), Myanmar (14.6 percent) and Indonesia (15.4 percent) are among the lowest, indicating strong growth potential for outbound travel in these markets over the next ten to twenty years, assuming an increasing propensity to travel is combined with a healthy increase in households.</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> 2016-2021 Outbound Travel Forecast<table cellpadding="1" cellspacing="0" border="1"> <tbody><tr><th class="table-description">Outbound trips (mn)<br> </th> <th class="table-description">Exclusions</th> <th class="table-description">2013</th> <th class="table-description">2014</th> <th class="table-description">2015</th> <th class="table-description">2016e</th> <th class="table-description">2021</th> <th class="table-description">2016-2021<br> CAGR<br> </th> <th class="table-description">Real GDP Growth 2016-2021<br type="_moz"> </th> </tr><tr><td>Australia</td> <td><br> </td> <td>8.8</td> <td>9.1</td> <td>9.5</td> <td>10.0</td> <td>11.8</td> <td>3.5%</td> <td>2.9%</td> </tr><tr><td>Bangladesh</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>1.5</td> <td>2.0</td> <td>2.1</td> <td>2.3</td> <td>2.6</td> <td>2.9%</td> <td>6.8%</td> </tr><tr><td>China</td> <td>excludes trips to HK and Macau<br type="_moz"> </td> <td>38.8</td> <td>48.1</td> <td>61.6</td> <td>68.7</td> <td>103.4</td> <td>8.5%</td> <td>6.0%</td> </tr><tr><td>Hong Kong</td> <td>excludes travel to China and Macau<br type="_moz"> </td> <td>4.7</td> <td>5.2</td> <td>5.0</td> <td>5.8</td> <td>6.8</td> <td>3.0%</td> <td>2.8%</td> </tr><tr><td>India</td> <td><br> </td> <td>11.6</td> <td>12.4</td> <td>13.5</td> <td>14.5</td> <td>21.5</td> <td>8.2%</td> <td>7.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>Indonesia</td> <td>excludes trips to Singapore by Sea and Same-day trips to Malaysia<br type="_moz"> </td> <td>6.9</td> <td>6.7</td> <td>6.6</td> <td>7.0</td> <td>10.6</td> <td>8.6%</td> <td>5.7%</td> </tr><tr><td>Japan</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>17.5</td> <td>16.9</td> <td>16.2</td> <td>16.8</td> <td>19.4</td> <td>2.9%</td> <td>0.5%</td> </tr><tr><td>Malaysia</td> <td>excludes cross border land travel to Singapore<br type="_moz"> </td> <td>10.8</td> <td>10.5</td> <td>11.1</td> <td>11.9</td> <td>14.2</td> <td>3.5%</td> <td>4.9%</td> </tr><tr><td>Myanmar</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>0.7</td> <td>0.8</td> <td>0.9</td> <td>1.0</td> <td>1.7</td> <td>10.6%</td> <td>7.7%</td> </tr><tr><td>New Zealand</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>2.2</td> <td>2.3</td> <td>2.4</td> <td>2.6</td> <td>3.1</td> <td>3.4%</td> <td>2.4%</td> </tr><tr><td>Philippines</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>2.8</td> <td>2.9</td> <td>3.2</td> <td>3.4</td> <td>4.3</td> <td>4.4%</td> <td>6.4%</td> </tr><tr><td>Singapore</td> <td>excludes cross border land travel to Malaysia<br type="_moz"> </td> <td>8.6</td> <td>8.9</td> <td>9.1</td> <td>9.8</td> <td>11.7</td> <td>3.5%</td> <td>2.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>South Korea</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>14.8</td> <td>16.1</td> <td>19.3</td> <td>21.3</td> <td>25.6</td> <td>3.8%</td> <td>3.0%</td> </tr><tr><td>Sri Lanka</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>1.3</td> <td>1.3</td> <td>1.4</td> <td>1.5</td> <td>2.0</td> <td>6.1%</td> <td>5.0%</td> </tr><tr><td>Taiwan</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>11.1</td> <td>11.8</td> <td>13.2</td> <td>14.1</td> <td>16.3</td> <td>2.9%</td> <td>2.6%</td> </tr><tr><td>Thailand</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>6.0</td> <td>6.4</td> <td>6.9</td> <td>7.2</td> <td>9.1</td> <td>4.8%</td> <td>3.1%</td> </tr><tr><td>Vietnam</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>4.2</td> <td>4.1</td> <td>4.6</td> <td>4.8</td> <td>7.5</td> <td>9.5%</td> <td>6.2%</td> </tr><tr><td>Total - 17 markets</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>152.1</td> <td>165.7</td> <td>186.5</td> <td>202.7</td> <td>271.4</td> <td>6.0%</td> <td>4.5%</td> </tr><tr><td>Asia Pacific Developed Markets&nbsp;</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>67.7</td> <td>70.3</td> <td>74.7</td> <td>80.4</td> <td>94.6</td> <td>3.3%</td> <td>2.4%</td> </tr><tr><td>Asia Pacific Emerging Markets&nbsp;</td> <td><br type="_moz"> </td> <td>84.4</td> <td>95.4</td> <td>111.8</td> <td>122.3</td> <td>176.8</td> <td>7.6%</td> <td>5.9%</td> </tr></tbody></table> About the Mastercard Future of Outbound Travel in Asia Pacific Report<p>The Mastercard Future of Outbound Travel in Asia Pacific Report presents an update of Asia Pacific’s regional outlook of outbound travel from 2016 to 2021 at various household income ranges combined with a five-year forecast of household growth. The data is taken from the 2011 to 2016 editions of the Mastercard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel. Data for outbound travel from 2013 to 2015 was taken from the national statistics boards of the relevant markets, and that for 2015 and 2016 were calculated using estimates from the 2016 edition of the Mastercard Asia Pacific Destinations Index.&nbsp;</p> About Mastercard<p><a href="http://mastercard.com" target="_blank">Mastercard</a> (NYSE: MA), <a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank">www.mastercard.com</a>, is a technology company in the global payments industry.&nbsp; We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories.&nbsp; Mastercard products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone.&nbsp; Follow us on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/mastercardap" target="_blank">@MastercardAP</a>&nbsp;and <a href="https://twitter.com/#%21/MasterCardNews" target="_blank">@MastercardNews</a>, join the discussion on the <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog/" target="_blank">Beyond the Transaction Blog</a> and <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe" target="_blank">subscribe</a> for the latest news on the <a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific" target="_blank">Engagement Bureau</a>.</p> Communications Contacts<p>Georgette Tan,<br> Mastercard,<br> georgette.tan@mastercard.com,<br> +65 6390 5971</p> <p>Samantha Yong,<br> Weber Shandwick,<br> samyong@webershandwick.com,<br> +65 6825 8053</p> The Mastercard Future of Outbound Travel in Asia Pacific Report presents an update of Asia Pacific’s regional outlook of outbound travel from 2016 to 2021 at various household income ranges combined with a five-year forecast of household growth. The data is taken from the 2011 to 2016 editions of the Mastercard Survey on Consumer Purchasing Priorities – Travel. Data for outbound travel from 2013 to 2015 was taken from the national statistics boards of the relevant markets, and that for 2015 and 2016 were calculated using estimates from the 2016 edition of the Mastercard Asia Pacific Destinations Index. http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2017/latest-forecast-emerging-markets2017-01-23T16:00:00.000Z2017-01-23T16:00:00.000ZBangkok Claims Title as World’s Most Visited City: 2016 Mastercard Global Destination Cities Index Asian Cities Dominate Fastest Growing Destination Cities Ranking<p>Osaka has shown the strongest growth in international visitors over the last seven years, followed by Chengdu, the provincial capital of China's Sichuan province. Forecasted top 10 fastest growing cities by CAGR (2009-2016) include:</p> <p>1. Osaka – 24.15 percent<br> 2. Chengdu – 20.14 percent<br> 3. Abu Dhabi – 19.81 percent<br> 4. Colombo – 19.57 percent<br> 5. Tokyo – 18.48 percent<br> 6. Riyadh – 16.45 percent<br> 7. Taipei – 14.53 percent<br> 8. Xi’an – 14.20 percent<br> 9. Tehran – 12.98 percent<br> 10. Xiamen – 12.93 percent</p> <p>Osaka's strong growth in visitor numbers has been a result of its success in attracting visitors from neighboring countries, particularly tourists from China and South Korea. For the three Chinese cities - Chengdu, Xi'an and Xiamen - their growth testify to China's growing attraction to international visitors. Fourth ranked Colombo is continuing to see strong recovery in tourism after the ending of its long running civil war.</p> <p>The difference between the global top 10 and the fastest growing top 10 destination cities suggests that Asia Pacific and the Middle East and Africa have become increasingly important to the global economic landscape. Many cities measured on the Index have increasing growth trajectories, indicating the growing interest in both visiting and living in cities.</p> <p></p> New Insights into Purpose of Travel and Local Spend<p>For the first time, the Index explores whether visitors travel for business or leisure, and provides insights into how international visitors are spending, including dining, lodging and shopping. The 2016 Index shows that among the top 20 cities, more people travel internationally for leisure (85.6 percent for Bangkok), except to Shanghai where more than half visit for business (54.6 percent).</p> <p>In terms of discretionary spending, accommodation makes up the biggest portion of visitors’ expenditure in most of the destination cities, with the exception of Istanbul. Reflecting the disparity in local cost of living, expenditure on accommodation runs as high as over 40 percent in Paris, Milan, Rome, Amsterdam and Vienna; whereas it is less than a third-of total expenditure in Bangkok, Seoul, Osaka, Shanghai and Istanbul. Seoul topped the list for greatest percentage spent on shopping against all categories at 58.7 percent, followed by London (46.7 percent), Osaka (43.4 percent) and Tokyo (43.1 percent).</p> <p></p> Identifying Regional Trends<p>Across the globe, a few key trends stand out, including:</p> <ul> <li><b>Europe –</b> London, ranked second globally and first in the region, is the top feeder city in terms of visitor and spending volume for all other cities that round out the top European destinations: Paris, Istanbul, Barcelona and Amsterdam.</li> <li><b>Latin America –</b> Lima is both the top destination and fastest growing city in the region since 2009, with 4.03 million visitors (ranked 32<sup>nd</sup> globally) and a seven year CAGR growth rate of 9.9 percent (ranked 15<sup>th</sup> globally). However, the rankings are very different in terms of overnight visitor spend; Punta Cana leads the region with US$2.95 billion followed by Mexico City (US$2.27 billion).</li> <li><b>Middle East and Africa –</b> Dubai is the top ranked destination city in the region (ranked fourth globally), while Abu Dhabi is the fastest growing in the region since 2009 with a seven year CAGR growth rate of 19.81 percent. This marks the United Arab Emirates as both the most visited and fastest growing country in the region for the second year in a row.</li> <li><b>North America –</b> New York, ranked fifth globally, is the top destination city in the region. It significantly surpasses the rest of the region in overnight visitor spend at US$18.50 billion. Nearly 90 percent of New York’s international visitors are from outside North America, led by London, Paris, Sao Paulo, Toronto and Beijing.</li> </ul> <p><b>Download the full report here:</b> <a href="http://news.mstr.cd/2di8S31" target="_blank">http://news.mstr.cd/2di8S31</a></p> <p></p> About the Mastercard Global Destination Cities Index<p>The Mastercard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2016.</p> <p>Public data is used in deriving the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Dubai, Amsterdam and Frankfurt.</p> <p>This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on Mastercard volumes or transactional data.</p> <p></p> About Mastercard<p><a href="http://mastercard.com/" target="_blank">Mastercard</a> (NYSE: MA), <a href="http://www.mastercard.com/" target="_blank">www.mastercard.com</a>, is a technology company in the global payments industry.&nbsp; We operate the world’s fastest payments processing network, connecting consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and businesses in more than 210 countries and territories.&nbsp; Mastercard products and solutions make everyday commerce activities – such as shopping, traveling, running a business and managing finances – easier, more secure and more efficient for everyone.&nbsp; Follow us on Twitter&nbsp;<b><a href="https://twitter.com/mastercardap" target="_blank"><b>@MastercardAP</b></a>&nbsp;</b>and<b>&nbsp;</b><b><a href="https://twitter.com/MasterCardNews" target="_blank"><b>@MastercardNews</b></a></b>, join the discussion on the&nbsp;<b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/blog/" target="_blank"><b>Beyond the Transaction Blog</b></a></b>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/subscribe" target="_blank"><b>subscribe</b></a></b>&nbsp;for the latest news on the&nbsp;<b><a href="http://newsroom.mastercard.com/asia-pacific/" target="_blank"><b>Engagement Bureau</b></a></b>. </p> Communications Contacts<p>Georgette Tan,<br> Mastercard,<br> <a href="mailto:georgette.tan@mastercard.com">georgette.tan@mastercard.com</a>,<br> +65 6390 5971</p> <p>Samantha Yong,<br> Weber Shandwick,<br> <a href="mailto:samyong@webershandwick.com">samyong@webershandwick.com</a>,<br> +65 6825 8053</p> <p></p> The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2016. Public data is used in deriving the international overnight visitor arrivals and their cross-border spending in each of the 132 destination cities, using custom-made algorithms; paying special attention to eliminate the hub effects for destination cities such as Singapore, Dubai, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. This Index and the accompanying reports are not based on MasterCard volumes or transactional data.http://www1.mastercard.com/content/intelligence/en/research/press-release/2016/bangkok-worlds-most-visited2016-09-21T16:00:00.000Z2016-09-21T16:00:00.000Z